Millennial Microbes & Preparedness For Future Pandemics

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Millennial Microbes & Preparedness For Future Pandemics

28 Sep, 2 PM

welcome hello good evening everyone I Dr welcome you all on behalf of Team Netflix and we are back with one amazing series makers of modern medicine and today we have a true maker of modern medicine with us uh Dr alkaresh Pandey uh welcome mamet's honor to have you with us to discuss this week thank you and uh just to talk about Mom uh she's a great amazing teacher and has 40 plus years of experience in this uh government of India honored man with Padma Shri award for her work uh in for HIV patients she started post art OPD uh in JJ hospital and she's former former hod of medicine at GJ I have a quick introduction for her uh which we have made so thank you [Music] [Music] foreign havoc in 2019 and for two years we all were just stuck and writing a new future for ourselves but that that keeps happening like last last month there was H1N1 and we are not able to understand why these mutations are happening so fast so we would love to understand from you about Millennial microbes and preparedness for future pandemics uh truly love thank you rucha and I thank my duplex for giving it to give me this opportunity now out of all these epidemics as you said I have seen HIV I have seen H1N1 Chikungunya and now Kobe but there are so many viruses which are emerging and therefore it is better that we remain at least knowledgeable about them so that we can tackle them more effectively yes and therefore I have chosen this topic which you also liked I suppose yes so here we go uh let's discuss this in detail and I request everyone to put all your questions in the comments and we'll take it up at the end of the session so good evening everybody I would just like to share whatever the information and knowledge that I have about these microbes the various viruses and the microbes which will be which will be challenging Us in this millennium now microbe the biological definition of microbes is from Greek word my Greek word micro means small and bios is like so microscopic organisms are microbes what are they bacteria protozoa fungi viruses and prions the term disease refers to condition that impaired the normal tissue function and infectious disease is a disease this is so it is a disease that is caused by the invasion of a host by agents whose activities harm the host tissue that is they cause the disease and can be transmitted to other individuals that is their infectious the most worrisome infectious agents are those that are very that are both very contagious and very virulent now just to go back about these microbes you can see here the origin of the earth is about 4.6 billions of years ago so I told you about the microbe they told you about the disease and infection now I am just showing you the origin of the earth which was 4.6 billion years ago as Earth was cooling down the first gases which appeared on the Earth where carbon dioxide and nitrogen and at that time then the microbial world started but as you can see here the man appeared only 20 000 years ago that means all these microbes are billions of years senior to us and we are like infants before them we are only 20 000 years 20 000 years old while the microbes are billions of years old and therefore since that time there is a tug of war between man and a micro now these microbes as I said they have survived the adverse their environment and they have developed themselves and then they follow the same darwinian law of evolution there is a reproduction a replication of this micro then they mutate and they are constantly mutated with a mutation there is a genetic diversity there is a natural selection and by natural selection there is a survival of the feed test and this cycle of evolution goes on so far have to become the test to survive they keep on reproducing and mutating now around 1978 if you remember the Northern Hemisphere that is the developed countries had almost eradicated all the infectious diseases while all the infectious diseases were quite prevalent in the southern hemisphere which had all the developing nations and underdeveloped Nation so there was a meeting in of all the heads of the nation and in 1978 in September these heads decided that we must eradicate the infectious diseases from the southern hemisphere whatever is today help each one I mean there will be help from each country to the other country so they express the need for Urgent action by all the governments all health and development workers and the world Community to protect and promote the health of all people so Health became uh human right and it was the responsibility of the federal government to maintain the help of the people now help me does that mean that the federal government will prevent your obesity diabetes hypertension no the federal government can control the infectious diseases and therefore they were slogan given held for all by 2080 with a pledge to eradicate all the infectious diseases from this southern hemisphere but as Mal proposes the God discloses within six months that is in June 1981 a new disease was reported from California this disease as it was reported immediately the CDC went to the site and they collected all the possible epidemiological data a small outbreak in California very soon assume devastating pandemic by the time the case was reported cases were reported from California half of the Ugandan population had been wiped out because of this disease this affected all aspects of human life not only medicine this was the first disease not restricted to Medical child but it stirred up all the human scientists like ethics philosophy sociology politics international relations and therefore this was I would take as a prototype of the millennial microbe it also helped us to develop advanced technology in Diagnostics and therapy it Revolution there were revolutionary changes in virology immunology and Medicine it refined the concepts of Human Services so with the Advent of this particular pandemic you know there was so much of revolution in the medical side that our understanding of pyrology Immunology it changed are consider clarified and this is what helped us in managing the other viral infection which appeared after this so therefore I will take this as a prototype of millennial microbe and this is none other than HIV virus which is a RNA virus and as you can see hiv-1 was identified first and then our investigations revealed us that there were so many groups of HIV one m n o and t now there was of the major group a there were so many subtitles a to K there were sub subtitles of this a and if and then there are recombinant forms which are called as circulating recombinant forms after HIV one within about one and one or two years we identified HIV two which also had groups from a to H But A and B are most prevalent what is CRF when a cell gets infected by two genetically different HIV viruses the reverse transcriptase may use both the RNA templates for the DNA synthesis mind you all these viruses are either RNA or DNA molecules which are encapsulated okay or they are in the envelope but these are RNA and DNA molecules and therefore all types of genetic jugglery is going on now a frequent action of retrovirus is to a largest genetic repertoire is formation of pre-combination increasing number of different subtypes are in circulation and therefore circulating recombinant pumps are increasing recombination of different members of quasi species is frequent and as on today we have identified 98 circulating recombinant forms of HIV virus in fact in Ghana there are hardly eight percent of the cases which are of the original HIV virus otherwise most of them are from the circulating recombinant forms now the basic principle that we have to remember virus is an obligate parasite and therefore virus tries its base to survive as long as the host survive and therefore it is constantly changing that is the great adaptability of the virus all the viruses and therefore it poses newer challenges it's we don't know what is the replication rate and how these recombinant forms will be transmitted what will be the therapy response whatever we have developed therapy for the basic for the first HIV virus how these crh will be will respond to our drug and what will be their resistant pattern so this is a prototype and this is exactly what is happening with all other viruses now this is Anthony pauschi in the 2013 after seeing some epidemics had to offer he talks about in emerging infectious diseases these are threats to human health and global stability he says that the epidemics and pandemics are inevitable they are bound to occur they are inevitable but unpredictable appearance of new infectious diseases have been recognized for Millennia well before the discovery of causative infectious agent so we are anticipating them we have not yet found them never we have not identified the viruses but we anticipate that these are going to happen now these epidemics or pandemics have layers of complexity to containing these infectious diseases that affect not only the health but the economic stability of the society and that is the importance of these diseases what are these infectious agents bacteria now because of our inadvertent use of antibiotics in the last century today we are facing drug resistant bacteria of all types viruses there are new viruses they are DNA and RNA viruses they are also getting as I said resistant viruses and recombinant forms from that there are resistant fungi also and therefore we are going to face challenges from these uh organisms protozoa helmets and prions what are crayons we have identified some infectious particles that consist only of protein and these proteinaceous infectious particles have been named as prions what are the challenges drug resistance is first newer viruses which are you know which we are anticipating but we don't we are not yet predicted which virus will jump and cup so drug resistance neuroviruses and prions and why this is occurring it is our changing lifestyle we are responsible for it our changing lifestyle ecological imbalance for which again we are responsible I will be talking about it little so this is also affecting the economic stability and these are the Infectious ages that we are going to face now why this is happening changing lifestyle ecological imbalance increasing vulnerability why are we becoming vulnerable because our lifestyle has changed a lot of immune compromise has come in us because of the other conditions non-communicable diseases or use of drugs and certain other factors so our vulnerability for infection is increasing and last but not the least is the important bioterrorism now these are Harbor viruses which are causing us a threat Dengue virus one two three four yellow fever waste Nile fever Chikungunya premium Congo fever ripped Valley Forest this is this is actually from our Karnataka shimoga District Encephalitis clinical features are more or less same but the causative agents are different transmission is different what are emerging infections therefore newly identified and previously unknown these are the emerging infection infectious agents that cause public health problems either locally or internationally at least 30 new viral diseases have been identified 17 million people succumb every year of which 7 million from Southeast Asia example given are SARS Chikungunya Nipa H1N1 h5n16 Ebola please remember all our single strand RNA viruses and they are zoonotic now SARS is the first and pandemic of 21st century and if that changed the whole world emerged in 2003 from a hotel in Hong Kong where the live animals are sold and they are eat I mean they are edible people eat these animals and this is how these organisms are jumping from the animals to the human being this is Hong Kong and after coming to the human being person-to-person respiratory spread by droplet infection this was the first pandemic sir severe acute respiratory syndrome Lessons Learned From cells rapid spread worldwide eight thousand ninety eight persons within three to four months 29 countries across five continents reported the cases so just imagine how rapidly its friend to five continents eight thousand ninety eight cases seven twenty one percent of the healthcare workers were affected and infectious disease in one country is a threat to all now this serves taught us that infectious disease does not remain content in that one country but it spreads very rapidly because of unsuspecting air Travelers in international spread not only that a tremendous negative economic impact on trade travel and tourism with an estimated loss of 30 to 150 billion US dollars so just imagine these are the lessons that we learned that these viruses are not very innocuous very small 80 to 100 Micron a hundred nanometer in diameter and these are playing Havoc with our human life what is juveniles is it is a Greek word June means animal no sauce is sickness so infectious diseases that spread between vertebrate animal and human are called as do nurses bacteria come from there viruses and parasites 70 percent of emerging viral infections are zoonotic in origin the human encroachment into habitat especially in tropical regions and interface with the wildlife can lead to creation of hot spots for emergence of new pathogens with a potential for Rapid spread among susceptible human population so each word is important we are encroaching on their habitat then there is a interface between us and their habitat the wildlife these are the hot spots from where these new pathogens emerge and they spread very rapidly in the susceptible human population facilitated by rapid means of travel and Wildlife trafficking the mutation of a virus from animals as making it infectious to humans is a common cause of new illness in the humans and these this is a map which shows you the emergence from the hot spots and the hot spots are shown here you can go and see I mean on the who side there is this hotspot are changing and many new hot spots are again appearing icmr in July 2019 that is just three years back has given us advisory that Ebola and nine other viral diseases pose a big threat to India and these are the viruses which icmr has told us in 2019 19 so we have to be prepared to face these epidemics Asia Africa Europe these were the countries where these were the continents which were badly affected there is a silveric cycle and then there is a human cycle silveric cycle is in chimpanzee and monkey then it is transmitted by it is egypti to the human being and again the human blood sucked by the these mosquitoes it goes back to these animals so this is how the whole life cycle goes on these are the reservoirs at the same time they cause multiplication the part of life cycle in chimpanzee and the monkey and then it comes to the human being there is a skin rash joint pains chronic inflammatory rheumatism the diagnosis is by ijm antibodies or antigen ECR they all have faced uh Chikungunya in Mumbai the cases were few but in Pune and Pune District the cases were maximum around Mumbai in Thane we had lot of chikungunya until today we are seeing the sequeline of this Chikungunya people coming with joint pains and you know a slightly disposed because of their joint involvement what are the other Millennial microbes just to name a few cells coming from fruit bats severe rats human to human in 2003 nippa crude bats pigs human to Human influenza pandemic occurred you all are aware about it in Italy in 1918 then there was an antigenic drift reassortment and then we started getting H1N1 h5n1 h791 and now we have search coded 2. H1N1 is a spine fluid there is a triple reassortment antigen from U1 swine and avian so just imagine this genetic jugglery the the virus coming from these three getting reasserted for their antigenic presentation High attack rate increase morbidity and mortality initially we didn't have any medicine and these people were dying of acute pneumonia and respiratory failure we had to isolate them keep a separate word ventilatory support we were short of ventilators at that time because we had not anticipated it and therefore today I am going to emphasize on the preparedness on our part when we are going to need the challenges like this in August 2010 who declared the pandemic is over but the cases are still presenting today we have a vaccine against HIV H1N1 but again this virus is changing its color and every time every year we have to study the virus and make the necessary changes in our vaccine H by N1 AVN influenza highly pathogenic Avian Influenza since November 2003 Avian Influenza h5n1 in Birds affected 60 countries across Asia Europe Middle East and Africa just imagine more than 220 million birds were killed by this virus or called to prevent further spread majority of human h5n1 infection due to direct contact with the birds infected with virus then came another virus h7a9 Avian Influenza in Eastern China reported in 2013. then I'm talking about acute hemorrhagic fever syndrome Lassa fever coming from West Africa this is the region rodents are the reservoirs and the pieces urine or rodent aerosols and they infect the human there are two forms milder for and severe part in severe form there it is hemorrhaging fatality is 70 percent fetal loss is 85 percent so just imagine how scary the picture is ripped valley fever again coming from the vertebrate animal that is shaped in The Ripped Valley of kedia sub-Saharan Africa Middle East mild form is self-limiting and all these viral infections initially give you a flu-like syndrome which may be limiting self-limiting but then there is a severe form hemorrhagic fever ocular syndrome and meningo Encephalitis caused by ripped valley fever acute hemorrhagic fever premium combo hemorrhagic fever Africa Europe Asia few cases are reported from Gujarat say it is at our doorstep remember again infectious Peaks to the animals Birds and the human therefore it is in the animals and birds how it comes to the human it is mainly seen in Farmers beds slaughterhouse workers it causes pateky bleeding DIC and multi-organ failure so Caribbean Congo hemorrhagic fever does not remain restricted to Congo but it has already spread and it is at our doorsteps Ebola this is a river in Democratic Republic of Congo Ebola cases were reported but there is to read it earlier the epidemic occurred and then it was identified that it was in the vicinity of the Ebola River so the name given was Ebola virus Throwbacks are the host and then human to human transmission by direct contact the symptoms flu-like symptoms then bleeding GI complaints delirium coma fatality is 90 percent and in Ebola 1100 healthcare workers died on duty okay so it is really a scary scenario we all have to take care of ourselves then only we will be able to serve the community Ebola transmission occurs from Human to human infected patient to the other Human by direct contact by body fluids all types of body fluids it's like HIV contaminated objects a patients use utensils clothes and other things can transmit this virus and now they have also saying that it is transmitted by sexual relation so there will be and then Wednesday okay this is the Hemorrhage caused by the Ebola and then this is the burial which is also carried out by the healthcare workers they remember the early days of covid this exactly what happened nobody was allowed and nobody was prepared to touch even is near and dear one and therefore healthcare workers had to carry out the burial of these patients for the first time our doctors in the paramedical workers were using the personal protection gate that is PPE they didn't even know how to Bear it it was so suffocating that in our humid and hot air Vader to work in that tpe kit for eight hours slowly they got used to it then they started how to change it or how to take a recess in between and that is how they started facing and managing the covet cases this is a grim scenario of Ebola death in Congo what the Ebola pandemic or Ebola epidemic in Congo taught those people adaptation of high standards of biosecurity majors even we had shortage of PPE kids in the beginning of Kobe remember that and therefore today if we have to be prepared we have to have a good supply of all these equipment to our medical and paramedical workers the adaptation of high standards of biosecurity but suppose even if it is available we must give the training how to wear it how to dispose it you must have seen newspaper news I mean the pictures in the newspaper how these things were disposed on the roadside however slum dwellers were using these PPA kits which were used when just thrown away so unless we have a method and unless we have a system in place how to dispose this it is of no use because it itself will cause spread of the disease and therefore regular training and regular monitoring activity must go on so it is something like a regular rehearsal drill that we must have the adaptation of high standards of biosecurity strict sanitary and hygienic practices strengthening of surveillance monitoring systems imposing appropriate quarantine checks vigilance and trade and transport movement of visitors from Ebola virus disease endemic countries and now the whole world is accepting this whole world is accepting all these lockdown before this I don't think we had heard about lockdown but now it is locked down because the whole world has become a global hut and therefore they have to be prepared we have to educate our community for this coming to Middle East Respiratory Syndrome this was reported from 2012 from Saudi Arabia the hosts are camels fruit bats Palm City this is a large coronavirus caused unexplained pneumonia severe pneumonia ards sepsis going into multi-organ failure travelers to Middle East multiple samples of nasopharyngeal swaps through the blood and urine they are tested for this virus and now I come to coronavirus actually human coronaviruses are identified since 1961. they typically cause common cold like symptoms inside there are four genres of these coronaviruses Alpha Beta gamma and Delta in 2002 and three we had SARS covered pandemic 2012 we had any RS Middle East Respiratory Center 2019 SARS Kobe 2. all these are beta coronaviruses and this is the famous in famous star scoby-2 virus it has an envelope and you can see a small e protein then there is a membrane protein that is my M protein then there is a nuclear protein called as n protein and there is a spike protein and this Pi protein is very important because it goes and attaches to the S receptors so with HIV we have started understanding and we have developed so many techniques to study the virus and therefore we immediately got this the answers to the Corona virus how it gets attached but mind you it started somewhere in December 19. and within two to two and half years we have so many recombinant forms of Corona and that is why they have to be prepared the first case reported from Malay Village called as sungai Nipa in 1998 and therefore name given was NEPA it comes from pigs dogs these are the reservoirs to human fruit bats to human and then four outbreaks in India till now of Nipa virus it affects the brain stem function segmental myoclonus diagnosed by PCR or IGA 75 fatality and we have totally observe the bicep images as on today they have no medicine for Nipa virus burial of Deepa by healthcare workers in Kerala say that so all this also role we had to play okay so it is quite a deadly virus then comes daika from daika forest of Uganda therefore the name is Zaika it is spread by Addis egypti the transmission is perinatal in utro sexual it is transmitted by transfusion so all these are human to human Transmissions flu-like illness which is self-limiting but it can cause gayabari syndrome the worst is micro cataly in the newborn the diagnostic test is IGN antibodies in India we had three cases reported from Ahmedabad in October 2018 Rajasthan had 94 confirmed cases of which 22 were pregnant women I think one slide is missing here that was of micro cataly of the heaters now what is re-emerging infection re-emerging infections are the infections which were known to us which we had controlled and now again after so many years they are re-emerging infectious agents that have been known for some type had fallen to such low levels that they were no longer considered as public health problems are now showing upward Trends in incidence or prevalence worldwide these are re-emerging infections why are they occurring again the same change in ecology change in Vector mutations susceptible host and Drug resistance that these organisms have become drug resistant and why we are becoming more and more susceptible it is because of our lifestyle okay these are rational fever I mean style virus Dengue cholera plate MRSA methylene resistance staphylococcus New Delhi metal of enzyme resistant disease mdrtd and resistant malaria the global polio eradication initiative was in 1988 we had eradicated polios after that seven documented incident underscore the potential for facility Associated release of polio virus into the community in the modern era that means what is facility Associated these viruses are still preserved in the Laboratories Laboratory can cause a community spread polio re-emerges in Philippine 19 years after it was eradicated in kalaburgi 25 mbba students hospitalized with diphtheria this was a news in times of India 3rd September 2019 more than 8 000 cases of diphtheria reported in 2004. so how suddenly diphtheria has started Rising so these are re-emerging infection so not only for new infections we have to be prepared but we have to prepare be prepared about the infections which we had almost forgotten to face the challenges what we need we need a capacity building and a rapid response for the capacity building because the brand is going to fall on all of us the doctors and paramedical people so we must have CMA programs of medical and paramedical Personnel they must train them there has to be high index of Suspicion and therefore the training is very very essential so we must have continued medical education for these infectious diseases high index of Suspicion surveillance in USA the moment something new is reported by the doctors the CDC sent its team there and collects all the data of the related to that patient collects all the data if other doctors have found similar cases so first is epidemiological surveillance and with this surveillance you get some Clues then we must have a diagnostic preparedness unfortunately we have only two or three virological Labs we will have to increase them okay so in diagnostic preparedness our Laboratories have to be prepared how to diagnose how to make antigenic diagnosis antibody diagnosis and finally viral PCR and therefore we have to be after our federal government to have more and more Laboratories for viral for a PCR viral PCR and then we need a molecular biology to find out if there are viral variations so which are the variants which are the recombinant form because we must be prepared whether these firms will respond to our pin therapy or not for which we need a Global Network and therefore all our doctors say them again and again say they must have a regular drill or biosity and hand washing and this is exactly what we have to also spread in the community so we must have the community awareness program for safety precautions Millennial month is a different yes his behavior achieved the human demographics and behavior had changed the technology and industrial area Advanced way that is causing you know we are causing deforestation we we have a population explosion there are so many other things as a result the economic development and land use so we are not maintaining the balance between our Economic Development because our needs are endless our progress has no limits our grid has no limits and therefore we are after this Economic Development which is not wrong it has to be there but then we have to also think about the land use we also have to think whether we are causing an imbalance in the ecology international travel and commerce is in great as I said it is called as a global hut at the same time there is a microbial adaptation and change and therefore these microbes they also want to survive as we want to survive so there is a microbial adaptation and chain breakdown of Public Health measures therefore human susceptibility to infection is increasing you know the way that Cycles or the climate is changing there is a change changing ecosystem there is a poverty and social inequality war and timing continuously going on in one or the other part of the world I should not comment on this but you all would agree that there is a lack of political will to face these problems and there is a intent to harm and that is bioterrorism bioterrorism what is bioterrorism it is a deliberate release of infectious agents by dissident individuals or terrorist groups biological agents are attractive instruments of Terror why because they are easy to produce and they cause Mass casualties they are difficult to detect and no one knows who has released them in the community there is a widespread panic and civil disruption so the aims of the terrorist groups are achieved and therefore there is always a threat for bio of bioterrorism particularly from these biological agents so for pandemic preparedness what we need prevention detection and response so for prevention we need our training training in every aspect as I said first of all bio safety we must have a thorough knowledge of what we are going to face we have to be prepared for detection so we have a laboratory preparedness and response the therapy and vaccine the response will come only after we identified organism so it is going to take a longer time till then we must have non-pharmatological strategy in which contact tracing is very important isolation of the patient is very important so that we are halting the spread of that particular organism physical distancing and bearing of the Mask the moment cases started decreasing in Mumbai everybody thought that the epidemic the pandemic is over everybody threw away their Mass I don't know whether it was causing so much impediments to these people but nobody wants any restrictions and therefore the mask s are all prone out even the I mean today after the first lull the cases again started increasing now again they are coming down but the moment we declared that now 98 of the cases are having are asymptomatic or mild people have stopped using Mass what is the problem how does it hinder our activity it doesn't on the contrary it protects us look at Philippines everybody is using the bus look at Singapore so we must train or we must spread the awareness in the communities about non-pharmaal ecological strategies it is better than having lockdowns for months together Public Health measures for prevention now this is partly a responsibility of the government but also our responsibility of the societies and community and therefore we have to train them in safe water sewage treatment and Disposal food safety programs and you know that how much we eat they love the food and the street food we all are very uh fascinated by the street foods in Mumbai you come and you will have Vada pav and the samosas and Bale and whatnot everything is available on the road and everybody is eating on the roads animal control program and vaccination program you have to make people aware about the vaccination all wrong Concepts and misconception about the vaccine have to be removed now sometimes as an emergency measure the vaccines are developed at least that those researchers who have very very quickly develop the preventive vaccine there may be some side effects because we have not done you know the phase one phase two phase three trials of course they were done the trials were done and in the trials they were successful but as when the kovit started we never expected a long coveted syndrome which we are seeing it today similarly you know anecdotal cases of vaccine related problems these are anecdotally but at least remember large population had been protected by vaccine and therefore we must give proper education to our society about the vaccination program what is the role of doctors increase knowledge and skill not of the community our own knowledge we must increase our knowledge we must increase our skills to handle these epidemics therefore we have to keep on reading we have to gather information and the experience of the other country how they have faced the challenge educate the people it is not a responsibility only a federal government it is our responsibility the people will listen to the doctors better and more than anybody else encourage partnership identify our needs and needs as I told you even the PPE kits were not available the oxygen was not available the isolation centers were not available set our priorities develop strategy it is a doctors who have scientific knowledge it is a doctors who are going to handle these cases you cannot deny and as I showed you so many healthcare workers have succumbed to these deaths while handling these cases so even for our protection and the protection of the community the protection of our near and dear ones we have to develop we are the people who have to develop strategies and pressurize the government's implement evaluate the progress support the health care legislation and we must also involve in the research and as somebody I am in you must have seen that cartoon in two years of kovid the number of research papers they were published they have surpassed all the papers published so far okay so don't say I don't publish anecdotal case but do a proper research and get the control trials or they give your experiences share your experiences so that has to be of some sizable experience now we are collecting data on Long covid syndrome which we didn't know what is long covet in December 2019 2021 now we know and therefore we are collecting the data so this is the work or role of the doctors they are going to play the pivotal roles and they have to educate the community and also the government government response strengthening surveillance and rapid response mechanism building capacity in epidemiology which we lack in our country strengthening of laboratory and networks which I have already said information sharing and partnership in the interstate as well as with the other nation and National commitment and comprehensive effort that has to be government response and finally this is a tug of war between the microbes versus man as I said microbes are existing on this Earth billions of years before the man and therefore it is a tug of war between our gates and their genes yes their jeans will keep on rotating and they will keep on posing challenges to us but our brains will take up all the challenges and we will successfully get over them so this is all that I wanted to share with you and therefore please collect the information please show your preparedness and it is our responsibility to teach the community and also to pressurize the government otherwise we will succumb to these endings or by pandemics thank you very much thank you Richa so uh thank you so much Mom once again for your time and for sharing all of this uh preparedness with us wonderfully we have a few questions and uh I would request all audience if you have any questions and want to interact with mom and ask her questions directly you can raise your hand I'll accept your request and you can come on stage but until then Dr Desa is asking most viruses named uh a name from uh its place of origin by kovid uh was not named from his place over it the Corona virus a viruses were known from 1964 I think and because of their structure that corona-like structure they are called as coronaviruses they were causing mild you know cold and cough like a thing but these coronaviruses evolved and then they cause these endemics from endemics to epidemics epidemics to pandemics and therefore kovid is you know it is called as a SARS Cove too the source code one severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by coronavirus that is covet thank you thank you Mom okay I saying awesome awesome session thank you so much Mom uh Dr Chuck Woody is saying great session um Dr Hari is asking uh do viruses weaken over a period of time uh do viruses weaken over the period of time Beacon possibly yes possibly yes because they go on changing and you know they want to survive for a longer time so maybe they cause a milder like as we have in Corona that now it has become more more or less asymptomatic but the it will survive long and we will have in between you know the uh we will in in between we'll have some epidemic proportions the cases will go on for years together it will not be wiped out all right thank you thank you so much patiently answering those questions I can again see great session and thank you so much uh so Mom with this I cannot see many questions uh as you say this is very new for everyone yeah and yeah so what I'm saying we have to be prepared to face them now when I handed HIV you know in the beginning 1990 the patients I mean no private doctor was ready to even touch a patient and it was the responsibility of the government hospital so everyone was referred to government hospital and they would bring and drop the patient in the casualty that time people didn't know anything so the moment HIV positive they will bring the patient to Jaja Hospital casualty and they had to spend you know at least half an hour with the patient's relatives that okay he is HIV positive but he is not AIDS and he will take another seven to eight years to develop AIDS till then I can't keep him in the hospital he has to be at home thank you I can tell you uh my uh this thing I was asked to conduct some workshops all over India and we conducted five days Workshop because there were some you know who and these people had organized so it was actually to empower the local doctors to manage HIV cases instead of that I started was getting cases from Rajasthan MP and from South India so instead of managing at their level that Deja hospital is the HIV Center they were it was not a center but because I was training the patients were referred to hospital so this is for I took this lecture that we all have to be empowered we all are have to bear this brand and therefore we should be prepared very time yeah okay yeah thank you Mom one more question I'll take up before uh closing this session Dr UDA Sagar is asking mom could you tell us about the organism few organisms that has potential to potential for bioterrorism there are so many there is any any organism now you must be you must you can recall the story that people were sending Anthrax by Post in USA similarly the polio virus now this coronavirus they say it was a accidental break from a virology lab you all know that story so these are types of bioterrorism we are in the 20 I mean we are in the third millennium so we don't know technology where it is going to take us okay thank you Mom thank you thank you thank you so much and thank you all the doctors for your patient Theory thank you once again it's truly an honor to have you with us


Throughout history, infectious illnesses with pandemic potential have frequently emerged and spread. People have already been affected by significant pandemics and epidemics like the plague, cholera, flu, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV, and the globe is currently dealing with the latest COVID-19 pandemic. This has been a stark reminder of the need to build resilient health systems globally. The understanding of the mechanisms of transmission of pathogens to humans allowed the establishment of methods to prevent and control infections. Join us LIVE on Medflix with Padmashree Awardee & Honorary Professor of Medicine, Dr. Alaka Deshpande as we comprehend all about the pathology of millennial microbes & improve our readiness for pandemics in the future!


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