How to write the Introduction with Illustrative Examples

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How to write the Introduction with Illustrative Examples

11 Feb, 12:30 PM

[Music] hello uh good evening everyone i'm dr i welcome you all on behalf of team netflix we are excited super excited about this i'm very happy to be there today because i'm seeing our national president on the platform i can see our uh honorable vice chairman dr praveen and dr vigil here i'm very happy that we are in kerala ira is introducing uh a new venture uh which i was thinking for a long time and i wanted to introduce it uh very long but since i became a president i asked this to dr rejo and ramesh also who's our program coordinator they very well accepted this and they presented this so today is a good day uh for starting this uh with the help of our national ira president and honorable vice chancellor dr mohan so on behalf of this i would welcome uh dr uh our national president ira president uh to this program uh all of you know he is very well known uh throughout a nation for the past few years who is uh well known for his academic and other activities so i welcome you dr kushbach for this program because this program is mainly for the residents because i have seen as an hrd i have seen this most of the residents they take this this is very lightly they never think this is the research book they think it is a burden for them and what they do in the last minute they hook up the cases and they bring a put few patients name and they just write on their own and come to us in the last minute when they have to submit so that there is no time for us to read the thesis also that happens to me for a long time and then i thought this should not happen because research should be done in a proper methodology so i took this as a venture and i want to do in a proper way for this uh dr praveen nirmala will be helping us i feel and this will be a lesson for the residents because they should start in the first year itself so that they can start the research work in this at the first year and end it in the final one that should be the program for the residents so that's my wish and i think all of you will help us and the pgs will also like this because they don't know what to do in this work that should be taught to them correctly how is the method of writing that this is this all should be tough that's what i want next yeah i think our push processor will agree to it then next i welcome dr mohanna honduras chair chancellor of kupas for helping out because all the residents are under his guidance so this should be a good program and this venture should come up and this will be a lesson for all the residents that the this is is a good topic and the tissue should be handed carefully and they should uh also obey the guide and the core guide and they should submit the thesis at least three months before they present to the university that should be a protocol which will be ordered on behalf of this i welcome uh dr bhushra batley and dr mohan now i welcome dr uh our secretary to this program and also welcome dr praveen who is going to talk on this and our program coordinator dr remy chennai uh to this platform over to you dr video to introduce the program thank you thank you president dr comedy should now we will move on to the inaugural address and the address from by the chief guest of honor to inaugurate this session we invite our national president dr pushparaj badaily inaugurate this session the ira president dissertation guidance program for post graduates which starts today this is a 12 week long dr promon sir my friend my colleague mentor and the vice chancellor of kerala medical university dr bondi president of writing thesis is a very difficult necessity and during my time i am as a student dr mohan sir will agree that for collection of references we had to go to central library delhi google services were rudimentary books were scarce help was very little in fact in the township of java there was only one person who could type our thesis and you will laugh he was a qualified civil engineer so you used to come to our hostels with a chunky typewriter and we used to collect give him the collected data and everything he used to analyze and give us now the information is so humongous so large that handling it is still an art i am sure with this series by dr nirmalan our young radiologist student they will learn how to compile this this bucket full of data and present a presentable thesis necessary to have a degree in theory and degree in other subjects as well i am also thankful to kerala for continuously helping central iria to shed some of his responsibility to complete some of its responsibility to impart continuous academic medical we are really pleased that kerala has not only taken the flag but they in fact they are the flag dealer the initiator of these kind of programs indian radiological and imaging association for the dinardo address now i have to welcome and invite the honorable vice chancellor of kerala university of health sciences and the past national president of indian radiological and imaging association our own doctor to the chief the guest of honor the great guru and all dear colleagues and my dear students in fact i am extremely happy uh to be a part of this uh webinar where the focus is research the focus is racist writing or the focus is creation of a dissertation as presbyter was rightly saying when we were studying we thought it was a very difficult thing to achieve in fact my thesis was an ultrasound and we didn't have any mechanism to take photos we didn't have pictures now our students need not take photos they can take cut and paste photos which they have never done so those days there was nothing to cut and we ourselves could not make and we created certain kind of cameras so that was the situation now things are improved now why should we do a thesis that is a fundamental question in fact every medical professional is must be a researcher every patient comes in front of him is a big research question and the drill you are teaching every student is that it it is in order to help the practice that is why the people who designed medical postgraduate course thought that this must be an integral part of the medical education now how do we see it uh every student who after joining the uh medical college for a post graduate medical postgraduate degree diploma of course is not expected because it's a very short time a three year degree course within uh first three months they allowed to find out in uh what area what area they are going to do this is whatever they are going to do a research and that is the job of the guide who is a qualified browser or associated professor to help and then they have to make a formal request to the university and university will go through the proposal and universities approval has to be taken so very often what they do is that this is not a dissertation the proposal is not met they make a thesis and finally just before the examination they are submitting the thesis which is not accepted by any of the universities number one and number two the research after completing the thesis binding everything getting signed it must be submitted to the university six months prior to the university proposed university examination or the university examination they are planning to write and then this dissertation will be evaluated by four experts and then if they have a consensus that this is of good quality then and only then this student will be permitted to appear for the examination and also national medical commission has put in one more condition that this thesis must be presented somewhere or should be published or sent for publication sent for a publication because of the covet these two conditions have been relaxed this last two years but otherwise this is mandatory so it's a very important integral part of the medical education and also medical national medical commission conducts a online program on how to do the thesis and the research methodology and every postgraduate student is mandatory to attend that course and not only the student every teacher also has to attend in fact very often teachers don't know what they should tell the students and so national medical commission is very wise that not only the student but the teacher also should attend these courses but of course online course people will try to attend and they may do it seriously or not seriously so in this juncture the intervention of ira kerala chapter becomes very important the sense that iri kerala chapter takes a head-on this problem and you are bringing one of the best teachers uh i have ever seen dr praveen nirmala dr rijo was telling me that he was supposed to be a sannyasi and this is how i said this is what a sannyasi do he creates lot of shishas he creates a lot of by teaching and that is what the sannyasis are supposed to do they are the source of immense uh imaginable source of knowledge and this knowledge is dissipated all around and several susheesias are formed and then these people will become uh other uh scenarios so this is a wonderful thing and therefore i should congratulate in fact i i have used the services of praveen nirmala in the university also for certain occasions and everyone in the university know that how uh great his thoughts and thinking and his way of action so we are very sure about this program and this is a program organized by the ira kerala chapter and our national president is here i should request him to escalate this to a national perspective it should be escalated to a national level so that the national iria can take it up and so that each and every budding new radiologist should undergo this program because this i hope will be more focused on radiology oriented also so it will be so what national medical commission gives uh it will be very broad thing very broadly in fact we are also conducting university also is conducting we have published a book on research methodology and now we are coming up with a new model program basics in research methodology which we are going to launch for undergraduate students and every health professional who has got an inclination to do some amount of research so various uh permutation combination in this area is coming up but still they are not enough and therefore ira has to take it up in a very big way and in the academic front i should congratulate the ira leadership for doing amazing work a few years ago when i was the president i started some initial work but now it has been taken forward very much and i should say compared to every other professional organization in the academic area ira is far ahead of others and with prosperity i think this is going to to a much greater heights and with these few words i wish this program the very best thank you thank you dr mohan sir the honorable vice chancellor of the kerala university of health sciences who has blessed us for this ira kerala president's dissertation guidance program to begin with today this is a 12 week program and our guru here is dr praveen nerman i have the honor and privilege to introduce him to the audience he is the chief research mentor at amma healthcare research gurukul and amma center for diagnosis and preventive medicine kerala with him i have been associated with him for several uh years ever since uh we have been doing several activities on the research front and his experience in this field he has masters in the public health from the john hopskins university usa and after that for several last 20 years or more he has helped the sever md md dnb dissertation students for nearly 200 students and he has got more than 100 international publications and he has been the ethics committee and scientific committee chairperson of several research programs not only in radiology but in obstetrics subsidic anesthesia ophthalmology several other specialties and he has played a key role in several icmr and who projects and it was at some point of time in his career he was about to withdraw and go back into a sannyasi more than i could brought him back and brought in and to suit his interests i just named it as amma healthcare research gurukul so that he is the guru and he will be finding more and more disciples in this program so with that introduction my interest may welcome and invite dr praveen mullen to take over this session today this uh he will be introducing the research effectively the introduction part will be covered and in the subsequent sessions the research questions and aims in precise concise terms will be discussed we have already coming out with a series of lectures and today the topic is on introduction how to effectively uh write an introduction for a thesis so the question here is thesis should not be the this should be a part of our clinical practice in the sense why we are doing it so we are the research aptitude attitude should be part of our clinical uh practice and how can we integrate it and research this thesis or dissertation in fact a exercise to make us aware of this and make us practice this particular aspect of seeking and researching into uh which researching into the use in in to make it useful in our clinical practice so uh let me introduce dr praveen nermal over to you dr praveen good evening and then welcome to the first of the 12 series sessions that we are having on the pieces and the importance of the thesis has been described by the previous speakers i won't get more into that we'll start with the introduction chapter of the thesis and that's the first chapter that we write in the thesis now what we need to understand is that we will walk through a systematic process a systematic approach to the writing of the dissertation and you can take the concepts that are instilled in this particular process you can apply to your clinical practice you can also apply it to the publication of a paper so you start looking at the thesis as an expanded bigger paper and you can have multiple publications coming out from this so the principles will apply the learning objectives for this particular session is to understand how to use a key element approach to write an effective introduction to the thesis so the writing of the introduction chapter is not just a copy paste it's not just a series of sentences a set of words a set of paragraphs we have a systematic approach to it we have certain elements that must be included in this particular chapter for a specific purpose and the specific purpose is to make sure that you are effectively introducing your research the approach that we will use in this particular session and in all sessions is that we will have a little bit of a theoretical framework and then we will walk through how to structure the channel and that will be through the use of certain examples certain examples that have been pulled out in an anonymous manner from some of the dissertations that i have had the opportunity to work on let's start with the purpose of the introduction we need to understand why we are doing this if we want to do it effectively and obviously the purpose of the introduction is to introduce your research to the real but more importantly something that you have to keep in mind is that the purpose of the introduction is to convince the reader that you chose a study that is worth pursuing that your research question your entire research study that you're presenting was to answer something that was worth exploring and you're setting out the base yet it's like the trailer of a movie the trailer of a movie tells you whether it's worth seeing the full movie or whether it's not worth seeing the full movie the interaction chapter is like a trailer for your research the research that you're presenting that was worth studying that oneness is on you that burden of making sure that you're convincing the reader is on you and that's where the interaction comes needless to say you can either engage the reviewer the examiner i'll call them the reviewer here after you can either engage the reviewer and involve them in the reading of your thesis or you can lose the reader right here in the introduction chapter if the interaction chapter is well written it encourages the reader to move forward with involvement there's a difference between just moving forward and creating a thesis and getting the examiner to move forward with involvement with an excitement that okay i'm going to read something that is interesting okay this student has done something that might be very interesting let me see what's happening with an excitement with an anticipation with a suspense building it's almost like you build a movie a novel you have to build towards that climax a poor introduction on the other hand makes the reader disinterested and after reading that they read the examiner they're already tired they have to review quite a lot of cases they have the personal commitments they have the professional commitments they have so many responsibilities to deal with they are reading this and then if you're not able to convince them that this is worth reading they're going to just say okay let me just see what's there what's that what's there and you might miss the chance to get a good grade to get a good impression so the introduction becomes very important you don't want the reviewer to lose interest in your thesis there are two areas that we must focus on and the first area obviously is the language we won't get too much into language we'll cover some important aspects but the language is important and the language must be precise and unsized grammar is important because it's not necessary that we must replicate queen's english here with all its comp and splendor but it must be grammatically readable and the writing must be readable and when i say readable it's that ability to be at a level of grade 1 or grade 2 students and we also don't want the readability to be at a level or so complex like at the level of the upanishads or maybe even like sri aurobindo's writings where it's very difficult to move through a sentence and understand all the nuances that are built in we want something in between something that makes it easier for the reader to pass through the work and again i am emphasizing ask the writer as the student it's your responsibility it's in your interest to think of the reader's perspective of the examiner's perspective and try to make life easier for them so that they will read through your thesis more effectively the language alone is not important that's not the only important component we're not into writing a novel or a poem here we are not looking for literary english the content is equally important and the content must be appropriate and relevant to his study so what content must be there in the introduction we will look at that but the content in the introduction as a brief introduction to that part of it must be appropriate and relevant to the title of your thesis at this point the examiner is has read the title of your thesis and is looking at the introduction and whatever you're writing in the introduction must be relevant to the title of your thesis and the introduction chapter must set out a rationale for why is this study important that rational must come out very clearly in the introduction so the making of a good introduction is that it is short yet informative introductions if we take a long time to introduce something if you take a lot of pages to introduce something it's no longer an interaction introductions must be short they must carry you to the point very fast yet it should be informative it should convey why your research is important i'm again emphasizing on that it is upon you the learner the writer to convince and convey the message to the reader the examiner that this particular problem that i am studying that i have studied is an important one and it should engage the reader to continue further so a bit of suspense a big bit of anticipation you must want the reader you must make the reader want to read further so let's look at the important aspects of the introduction we have four key elements that must necessarily be there four e elements and anything beyond that four key elements is noise that is made to pad up space and need not be there keep it crisp keep it precise if it trans concise and we need just four elements the first element is to introduce a problem that you are studying what are you studying describe the problem in clear precise language describe the global relevance of that particular problem describe the regional and local relevance and some problems may not have a global relevance it might be locally appropriate some might have a regional and local relevance some might have a global risk but describe what you are studying in very clear precise simple readable language and you can you can structure that within two to three paragraphs so the one key element which is where you are describing the problem you are studying can be placed in up to three paragraphs so you can use up to three paragraphs to describe that particular problem that you are studying the second key element is to describe what is already known about your area of study about your question what do we already know about it and here the confusion that often comes is we are doing a review of literature so what do i place in here in the introduction the review of literature is already looking at in greater depth about what is already known about the research question so in the introduction you place recent pertinent information when i say recent pertinent information i would recommend that you look at information that has come within the previous five years and moved from the most recent to a little bad word now it is sometimes possible that you want to play something a bit of information is historically very important in that case you can place it that might come many decades from many decades back that's all right when it's historically and contextually relevant you can place that but otherwise stick to the recent pertinent information and introduce both supporting statements and refuting statements the idea of introducing both statements that support the recent information and refute it is that you want to show that there is an area of divergence there is an area that has to be studied if everything is supporting a particular bit of information then there may not be any more reason to study that any further if everything is against it again there may not be any reason to study that further it's been studied long enough well enough and there's no support for that particular hypothesis if everything is supporting it it's been studied long enough well enough and everything is supporting that particular hypothesis so why do you study that further you want to study something where there is a divergence where there is a divergence of opinion about a set of facts and it's because the diversion exists that there is a gap in knowledge and that's what you want to address so you are springing up through this particular process to the knowledge of the examiner that i have looked at this particular problem this is the recent pertinent information this is what i find is supporting my hypothesis this is what is not supporting my hypothesis and i see this divergence and that's why i feel it is worth studying this further so you are starting to set out the rationale for your study and again this can be three to four paragraphs when i say three to four paragraphs it's not like it's set in stone but it gives you a framework for how many paragraphs you can build around this the third key element is what is not yet known in the area of your study what are the gaps in knowledge and that's where you are now teasing out the discrepancies and you are saying well we don't know much about this this is not yet studied this has not been looked at these are the gaps in knowledge and that's what i want to look at so you're telling the examiner that i have not just picked up something that someone else has done and i'm not just rehashing the whole process again there is a thought process that's running through i'm finding this is supporting this is not supporting and hence i want to look at these particular gaps and you can set out the thought process in two to three paragraphs and this is an important part that you have to set out because this shows the examiner a well experienced examiner by discerning examiner this shows that examiner how you are thinking it also tells when i read it when i read a dissertation and i see this particular element it tells me how a person will react and will think when they see a patient in front of them if it's a clinical question it sets out how you are going to critically look at a problem how are you critically analyzing a problem how are you going to proceed further with that particular problem so this is an important area and you have to give enough time and thought to the writing of this particular area the fourth and final key element is what are you trying to do so we have looked at what is the problem we have looked at what is known about the problem we have looked at what is not known yet about the problem or what are the gaps in knowledge now you set out what is it that i did what was it that i wanted to do you might have wanted to fill a gap perfectly all right you might have wanted to reinforce existing knowledge in the sense that maybe a study has been done in a caucasian population it's not done in a asian indian population so you want to repeat that study in an ancient in in an asian indian population you want to reinforce existing or maybe it's been done in north india it's not been done in south india and you want to see whether it will still apply in south india you want to reinforce existing knowledge you might want to be validating previously known information well i know that abc is a risk factor for why and i want to see if that still holds good as environment and lifestyles and all those other factors that can impact on the risk factors has changed maybe you want to provide an entirely new direction so you want to set that out so that the examiner says well well well so this is what you want to do and this is how you have led to this particular point of what you want to do and that sets the base for the next sessions this can be a paragraph the end where you set out what you're trying to do and why and what you're trying to achieve can be a paragraph by itself so these are the key elements now the thing to remember here is that oftentimes we think of the research of the thesis just as a summary of the research that we have done and that it's a set of tables it's a set of figures it's a set of results that we have interpreted and there are sections about how we have done it there are words there are sentences there are paragraphs and the examiner will just look at it and read through that the key element in word here is that the thesis or the dissertation tells us how you have developed your critical thinking abilities critical thinking abilities that are essential in the management in the clinical management of a patient in public health management as well in a community setting aspect so it tells us how you will think through a problem when you see a patient dr mohan rightly said earlier that every patient is a research and the thesis sets out what is the way you think about that particular problem who is now sitting in front of you as a patient so the key elements help to build this process of thinking and how you are trying to do your study sets that out very clearly for the exam so if you are able to convince the examiner that you are able to critically think through and you have critically thought through this particular you have calculated relevant information you have supporting statements you have refuting statements you have brought out whatever the gaps are and you have brought up what you are going to do the examiner in most instances in almost all instances is going to be excited to read further and that sets the tone for the further reading of your piece it makes it easier for you so the key elements to be kept the key elements of the introduction should lead seamlessly to the hypothesis question and aims of your study that leads to this particular next section the hypothesis question and aims of your study now let's come to language you can have the best of content you can have the best of content you can have the best of intentions but if the language that you use is not good enough it loses its value the reverse is also true the converse is also true where you can have the best language the most flowery language but if the content is not good it's not worth it so there is a balance that has to be struck between language and the content and what we have to focus on the language let's look at some practical tips that we have come across by reading through the reading of dissertations one words are important and how do you choose words try to use commonly used words avoid the use of words that force your exam not to look for a dictionary it's highly unlikely that doctor shashi tarot is going to be your examiner for a dissertation in health care so try to avoid words like that are common for dr but are obviously very uncommon for the rest of us common for use common words commonly used words and if you have a choice between a word with more letters and a word with fewer letters with the same meaning choose the word with fewer letters as long as that it has the same meaning as the word with a lot longer later more letters now there is an advantage for that when you have fewer letters a very pragmatic practical advantage when you have fewer letters you have to type fewer number of times which means it reduces the chance of mistakes occurring spelling mistakes of time it also reduces the time for you to proofread your dissertation later for the same meaning it and very practically it also reduces the number of pages that you have to print there is a financial consideration also for for the examiner it makes it easier for the examiner to read and it makes it easier for the examiner to complete the reading of your dissertation so where you can choose a word with fewer letters choose them and avoid social media words and slang now we are used to tweeting we are used to whatsapping we are used to facebook we are used to instagram we are used to communicating with word limits we are used to the way language is changing and the changes in the way it's being used and a lot of slang and some of that creates into the and has crept into the dissertation as well now avoid that avoid the use of social media words about the use of slang and be careful about that you're writing a scientific manuscript adhered to the principles of the writing of a scientific manuscript and try to make it as scientific as possible the words create sentences and we have to string words properly to make a sentence and again with twitter with tweets with facebook with whatsapp with telegram signal instagram so many things coming in we are used to creating very short sentences sentences where we don't end with the punctuation and we are still able to convey the meaning but that doesn't work with the dissertation it also creates more work for the examiner to try to understand what you're trying to say and so avoid the use of social media language make sure that your sentences are complete this is a common problem where sentences are left hanging without ending and if sentences are left handing hanging without an ending it's more than likely that your thesis results will also be left hand so avoid that make sure of punctuation keep sentences very short and precise now you have to understand that each sentence carries a message and each sentence the maximum limit should be around 15 to 20 words there is scientific evidence to show that if it exceeds 25 words most people don't complete the reading of that sentence in its entirety so evidence-based medicine evidence-based language aspect if it's more than 20 words split the sentence into two sentences sentences make paragraphs and a group paragraph is a group or sentences that have a common p no each paragraph must have a central theme and you use short paragraphs don't write long characters about five to eight sentences for each paragraph each paragraph leads to the next paragraph and you have to connect themes using transition words or sentences so a paragraph has a theme each sentence has a message and must connect to the next message paragraph has a theme the paragraph must connect to the next paragraph through what we call as transition sentences that connect the two paragraphs the theme of the paragraph can be placed in the center so it's preceded by supporting statements followed by sentences that lead to the next paragraph or it can you can start a paragraph with the core theme or you can end the paragraph with the core now what type of voice should we use active voice or passive wise most people prefer active ways to write scientific literature however the scientific literature is often written by us in the passive ways as we have been trained in that manner especially in the asian countries now without getting too much into the grammar about what is active voice and passive ways i'll just point out a difference here the first sentence that i have mentioned the most people prefer active voice to write scientific literature is in the attitudes the second sentence is scientific literature is often written by us in the passive voice as we have been trained in that manner it's in the passive ways and then very obvious difference you can see is that the number of words that have been used to communicate the same meaning and you can see that when we write in the active voice we can use less words fewer words to communicate the same and as i said earlier fewer words means fewer opportunities to make mistakes easier to proofread less pages to print and less effort to type so there are advantages to it besides most international journals insist for and look for active ways rather than passive ways and it's a problem for us because we have been trained in the through our education system in the use of passive ways and so there will be a little there will be a little bit of mix and match that happens i would say take that as it comes and keep working on it and that's all that i want to say now on the active or passive ways i'm not going to get into a complete english grammar lesson that's not the purpose for this so to recap we want the introduction to be short and precise we want we will use a key element approach to ensure that we have covered all the key elements that must be presented there are just four key elements that are needed what's your problem what is known about that problem what is not yet known about that problem what did you do about it the rest of it is all noise your sentences should be short about 15 to 20 words paragraphs should have about five to eight sentences don't create long paragraphs don't create essays there paragraphs short characters make sure that you are making it easier for the reader to read it you have to move logically between and within paragraphs and maximum for an introduction is three to four pages you don't need more than that if you cannot introduce your problem in three to four pages you really need to look at what the problem was you should be able to do a good introduction within three to four pages so let's look at an example that was a theoretical part and that's good we can talk about the theoretical part but unless we apply it and unless we see it in application it doesn't make much sense it's good as a listening exercise it's good to know what our heads do it's good to feel good about but we need to apply that so let's look at a theme from a dissertation that was submitted and the theme was head and neck cancers and the sub focus was diagnostic interventions let's look at how this works out or how the particular student went about this and the focus was the student wanted to study the research question was wanted to study the diagnostic effectiveness of a particular diagnostic intervention in head and neck cancers particular diagnostic intervention in the sense a particular diagnostic modality how did the student organize this particular chapter on introduction students started with a paragraph that states why the head and neck cancers are important so that's one of the key elements what's the problem why hedonic cancers are important and said what is included in the term head and neck cancer what's the mobility and mortality associated with it a statement about management and reference and considered a statement about the quality of life for persons with hedonic cancers as an impact statement saying that this is why it's important now the key point that the student wanted to bring here was he wanted to convey to the examiner straight up why this was a good area to study you can pinch and zoom this up i'm sorry that it's crowded so what did the student write head and neck cancers are defined as malignant tumors located in the upper airway digestive tract so we started with the definition then set the predominant pathological origin squamous origin and where it rises and then said salivary gland malignancies are frequently included in the definition despite different pathology clauses and here he is bringing in the student was bringing in the fact that salivary glare there was a bit of controversy where the salivary gland cancels or tumors should be included in headaches so he wanted to bring that part also we know that we were focusing on salivary gland tumors as well the student then said so this is a description of the problem and the student went straight away to the fatality rates and said fatality rates and cadence cancers are high in india with an estimated 330 000 deaths reported from ketone cancers every year now if you look at this particular sentence you can see that we have reported we have repeated from head and neck cancers fatality rates and ketone cancers reported from kidney cancer so that can be changed that can be taken off that can be removed and you can make this sentence short the manage and then the student went on to the management of head and neck cancer inverse multidisciplinary evaluation and treatment and moved on to early detection and prevention provides opportunities for better management and reduce cost of threat but most patients present late and that's why this is still a problem then talked about recurrence typically tumors recover within first two years after treatment and post treatment identification of recurrence is difficult so now the student is bringing in that there is recurrence even though there is management and the identification of frequency remains a problem and endured with over five people in india die every hour every day because of overall cancer and from cancer in the overall pharynx and hypopharynx respectively and this was a transition statement now if we look at this particular paragraph you see first paragraph we see at face it looks like it's well structured as i said there was a repetition of a few words we can remove that now can we improve the structure of this further so let's say that we are looking starting with what is included in the term head and neck cancers the primary predominant origin squamous cell where the arrays in the mucosal lining salivary gland malignancies we can start with those three sentences now the last sentence the transition sentence talks about death and we have fatality rights placed separate from that so there's no connection there that's building between the fatality rates and the last sentence so let's say that i take that sentence down and i place it just before the over five people in india die every day now there is a connection that comes in between fatality rates and ketone cancers are high in india and over five people in india die every hour every day so we can start building that connection so i can restructure the sentences within the paragraph to make sure that there is a flow within the paragraph and that flow makes it easier for the examiner to connect information without having to jump back and forth so we had the transition statement and let's look at what the next paragraph was the next paragraph described the magnitude in greater detail talked about global prevalence talked about incidents regional and local prevalence and incidence differential distribution by age and gender and ended with country specific mortal debates so we have seen there is a description of a problem and the subsequent paragraph is now setting out the magnitude of that particular problem let's look at what was done again pinch and zoom please i apologize that the slide is crowded and that it might be a little bit difficult to read bear with me on that sorry about it so the student wrote there are an estimated 650 000 percents affected worldwide every year talked about it's more common in females talked about a male to female ratio moved on to saying that nearly one third of all persons with cancer in india have a head and neck cancer compared to 4.5 percent in the developed world the incidence of oral cancer in india was estimated as so much in males and in females and there were so many deaths and said most of the oral cancers occur between the age of 50 to 70 years and men are two to four times more affected than women in india the international agency for research and cancer iirc predicts the incidence to be so much by 2035 and the death rate from cancer will also increase from 680 000 to 1 to 2 million in the same period so again look at the structure of this particular paragraph and you can see that there is a global magnitude there is male to female ratio talking about how in india it differs from the developed world talks about the numbers in india in terms of magnitude and terms of death talks about the iirc prediction so on face value there is information that is relevant can we say that this is well structured well we can say it is well structured well let's let's just look at it a little bit more critically and for that let me take you back to the transition statement which said over five people in india die every hour every day because of oral cancer and from cancer in the order of pharynx and hypopharynx the last sentence of the preceding paragraph so the last sentence of the preceding paragraph talked about death and it immediately moved into global magnitude and again death was brought in somewhere in between so can i connect those two can i make sure using the same set of sentences that there is a transition that is happening and let's say that i now bring in that the first sentence is the number of deaths into in 2012 due to oral cancer in india was 36 thousand 463 males and 15 361 and female so i'm not connecting the number of deaths that can be one of the that can be the first sentence of this paragraph alternatively alternatively i can choose the last sentence here what the iarc is telling in terms of magnitude and death rate as the beginning sentence so i can now connect your last sentence of the preceding paragraph which was about this is now being connected again to deaths and we are making a seamless transition between the paragraphs now let's say i start the sentence with the the paragraph with the number of deaths into in 2012 now if i say there are so many debts the next question is so what what does that mean and so i follow that with well the incidence of oral cancer in india was so much that's the next sentence and when i'm doing that i'm straight away placing that well can you notice that 36 463 males died from oral cancer in india when the incidence was 53 842 in males in india and straight away bringing it up that this is a huge number and similarly for females 15 000 and 23 000 so there's a huge number i'm also showing the differential mortality as well as mobility incidents in males and females then capturing the imagination of the x another well this is important it's a huge number your question seems to be looking at something that is important and it put the next sentence as nearly one third of all persons with cancer in india have a head and neck cancer compared to 4.5 percent in the developed world so now i'm saying that well this is what is there in india and we must realize that what is there in india is different from what is there in the developed world and let me look at that sentence a bit closer nearly one third of all persons compared to four point five four to five percent in the developed world that one third on a casual reading does not attract much attention when we look at four to five percent or if i change that one third to thirty percent it straightaway hits that this is a big difference thirty percent versus four to five percent so at every point of time you have to make sure that you're capturing the attention of the reader of the exam so 30 compared to four to five percent it's straight there's no ambiguity there it immediately strikes oh there's a big difference let's say follow that with the iirc with the iirc statement on the incidence of cancer in india and how much the deaths will increase and then lead to okay so what's the global numbers the global numbers is so much then come to the male female ratio globally and then end with the male female ratio in india so now i've got a better structure that has come from the previous paragraph i have taken that's in the last sentence of the previous paragraph i've started with that's here i've led through the magnitude i've lived through a fact that there is a difference between india and the global data and what is anticipated and that's why this is important because of this difference because of the magnitude of deaths because of the magnitude of cases the difference and i have now moved on to there is a difference between males and females and that we are seeing that there is a similarity in the global as well as indian data on that so it's a good it's a good paragraph but you could make it better and again i'm not saying that whatever i say is set in stone and that's the only way to go about it's not like my way or the highway it's that as you think through as you think through and as you keep looking at what is there in the preceding paragraph you can start structuring the succeeding paragraph in multiple ways try to make sure that there is a connection between two paragraphs next you can transition to a paragraph on the type of header neck cancers and differential mortality by type and location of cancer you're setting out the you're setting out the importance you're now trying to convince the real level i told you this is the problem this is the magnitude i am now moving from the differential magnitude in males and females to what are the types of ketone cancers and is there a differential mortality by type and location of cancer and from there i can transition to a couple of paragraphs and current interventions and the key point here is that i don't want a i'm not keen to describe the interventions in greater detail my aim here is to convince the reader that we need an accurate diagnosis for optimal intervention and if you need an accurate diagnosis for optimal integration intervention we need to know the diagnostic effectiveness of the modalities that we have radiology diagnostic effectiveness of the imaging model is that we are using for ketone cancers and we are building in the fact that if we don't have a good imaging modality we are probably not able to pick these cases up early and even though we have this intervention strategies we are unable to use them because they are presenting late and hence results are not as good as they should be or they could be then we can transition to a couple of paragraphs on the diagnostic test the diagnostic imaging modalities that are being used and interventions and we present the uses and limitations of the current modalities briefly not everything the important ones transition to a paragraph on the diagnostic intervention that was of primary interest for you what is known about it and its importance again briefly remember a paragraph is about eight sentences max it no one is going to hang you if you go ten sentences as a person but try to make it within eight sentences it shows that you are able to condense information the relevant information and communicate and finally you end with a paragraph of what you did and why and you can see that now everything is linking towards that it's coming in a particular flow and it's ending with what you did and why and you're linking to the information you're linking the information that you are presented to the hypothesis and the need for such a study even if you don't and haven't explicitly stated your hypothesis here there's a separate section for the hypothesis so here you don't explicitly state your hypothesis what you're building the whole argument towards this is what my hypothesis is going to be and this is the need for such a study so let's look at the end game again please zoom so the end game the end paragraph for that particular dissertation was oral cavities accessible for visual examination so it's something that's easily accessible and oral cancers and pre-malignant deletions have well-designed clinical diagnostic features clear-cut diagnostic features so we can clinically diagnostic diagnosis easily accessible for visual examination however most oral cancers are typically detected in a late advanced stage so that's a problem several modalities for early identification of the primary tumor and recurrence exist again what's the problem there there are only few studies in the scientific literature that report on the optical combination of dc mr perfusion image which is what their modality of interest and histopathology to differentiate benign from malignant hedonic tumors and distinguish recurrent humans from post radiation changes we designed this study to address the specific gap in information on the diagnostic effectiveness of dcemr perfusion imaging for tumors of the oral cavity so that's the end so they have designed this study to address this specific gap of information and they're looking at diagnostic effectiveness of this particular modality for this particular condition now from this you can actually start building what the hypothesis will be what the aims of the study will be what the research question will be so even though you have not explicitly stated it the examiner now knows okay so all this well you are leading to this and this is what you want to do examiner can anticipate okay this is what you must have done let me see what you have done and that's the excitement that you have to build in the action you must want to make them want to read your thesis not as a routine job not as something that has to be done and so let me do it but you must make them excited to want to read your thesis and if you get them excited to want to read your thesis i can guarantee that no one is going to pick up on small mistakes here and there and say oh oh this is not good that's in there they're going to look at the broader picture they're going to look at the way you have got it they're going to look at the way you are structured and they're going to be pleased about it if you don't get them excited about it then every small thing or why didn't you put a comma there where is your full stop everything becomes a problem because you're already you've made them irritated enough that they feel disinterested to read it further so have a heart think about the examiner understand that they are also human beings unfortunately we have not yet reached a stage maybe we will not yet reach the stage where we will use artificial intelligence to read the thesis and look at what's copy paste and what is not so in that stage understand the examiners of human beings and try to make it easier for them the more you make it easier for them the easier it is for you as well so i would suggest you will you you will be able to access the recording later i will suggest you look through it explore this organization what was good in this organization we can say nine paragraphs there were three paragraphs per page three pages maybe you can add a few more paragraphs make it 12 paragraphs rather than listening just listening to me saying that this is the way it must be organized this is the key element this is the way it must be written this is active words this is passive ways get back to the recording look at it look at this particular chapter look at how it was organized and try to think what can be improved if it is you what would you improve what would you delete what can you add what will you reorganize look at your particular research question and try to apply this so keep this as a temporary model there preliminary framework there and then take your research question take your introduction chapter say how do i now structure my chat do that that's where you start picking out and start assimilating and internalizing these concepts so i would strongly recommend that you you have the opportunity to get back to these recordings and look at it so use it so there is one chapter at the end of the chapter on the introduction the reader must the examiner must understand the rationale for your question must agree with the importance of your question and must be able to visualize how these lead to your hypothesis aims and questioning these three things are important these three things must come through your introduction if they come through your introduction you're on the way if they don't come through your introduction you're going to stumble along with it so make sure that these three things are there and that's where we use the key elements to build these three things to make sure that they are in there and we focus on the language to make sure that it is readable we focus on the content as well so when do we start writing the introduction chapter i recommend personally that we start writing the introduction chapter as soon as the synopsis is accepted personally i will say because i've had friends who have had the rejection letters of the synopsis appear one and a half years later two years later in a few instances so i often recommend the students that i work with to start writing the introduction chapter as soon as they submit their synopsis more synopsis are accepted so start writing as soon as you submit your synopsis complete the first draft early show it to your guide maybe your guide will stare at you and wonder from which planet you appeared maybe your guide will wonder whether you are high on drugs or something why is this person coming with a thesis so early in the first year maybe possible maybe your peers will stare at you and try to kick you out maybe your core guide will also stare at you all that can happen doesn't matter it's part of life show it to your guide early because your guide can then look at it have an understanding of how your thinking processes start working on that as well and give you feedback that can help you improve that particular job now as you do that you have to be aware that after you complete the review of literature maybe you want to change a few sentences and references there on the information relating to the magnitude or the importance of the problem doesn't matter you have to revisit the introduction again after the data analysis is completed because you might want to make some minor revisions at this stage it will be minor emissions based on the results that you have found and what you want to then project in the introduction but start early so to recap keep it short precise a key element approach short sentences short paragraphs move logically between and within paragraphs maximum three to four pages practice feedback revise don't expect to complete a draft in the first seating you might have to write it a couple of times to get it at the standard that you want and the most important thing is that with the thesis you are setting your own benchmark for excellence it depends on what you set as your benchmark for excellence and so write it well set a high standard for yourself and try to make sure that you're able to convince the examiner that you're actually on the path to becoming a great clinician or a great great diagnostician a great public health practitioner or whatever that is so that is all for this particular session on the structure of the introduction of a thesis and the way that we usually look at the interaction chapter of a thesis again different people have different approaches i'm not saying that my way is the only way that it should be done but this is the framework that we usually do and this is the framework that we usually get the students to walk through thank you so much and if there are questions to answer i'll be happy to do that thank you dr praveen nirmalin for the wonderful lecture and it was highly informative uh president kamadi ma'am you have any questions at this point of time yeah i think there's one question from the audience i could see when krishnapriya has asked some question can you see this one i think it is the world can involve in the cancer research i think yeah that's what that's not a question for us that's not even i was wondering yeah yeah see uh uh comedy ma'am i just bought the christian you are a pg examiner you're the head of the department yeah when now the first years have joined as i understand yeah yeah so have you ever come across a situation the first year comes to you immediately with this kind of okay i've prepared the introduction and this is or what is the usual time period these people usually come to you actually when they join they are not bothered about the thesis we have to tell them and we have to tell uh we have to give the topics to them because they are never interested in collecting the topics to which research we have to do because they are because they are new to this they won't know what to do so they asked madam please give us the research topic so that they will do it they'll come after two or three months they never come immediately after two or three months we gave the topic i asked them to find out from uh many research books for just the methodology what you have to do on this they'll come slowly they take nearly six months nearly six months they don't come immediately so walk from it yeah but synopsis they give time little bit after nearly 10 months the first year after that only the syrup is asked by the kohas then the second year they start preparing for the thesis that what happens for everybody because first year the daughter all bothered for writing the quizzes but now i feel that it should be strictly followed and they should be started in the first year itself as uh dr prevailing said go let the residents come with their topic and let they come forward with introduction that that will be a very good idea even i feel that every future future is of clinician scientist so yeah every clinician or every patient that comes to you is a question that you are trying to answer there are certain so this is a certain methodology that we are bound to inculcate into each and every student either graduate or graduate level and that is what they are trying to the introduction will give them a perspective about the global prevalence the local prevalence and the current the problems what are the gaps and what are my question how is it relevant all these things are so this sort of a research culture has to be inculcated right from the beginning what is happening is because that is going to make a difference in their clinical practice too if they start seeing the patients and the patient clinical questions in that way that will make a huge big difference in their clinical practice they will have new insights and relevant questions and they will come out with proper answers with proper solutions and proper management too so this is something that is not different from your uh because right now i feel many people think that research is something separate something done in very academic highly academic tertiary institutes and i have got nothing to do with that it's not the truth uh it is not the truth every person who is uh i and many people think i'm a clean i'm a radiologist i'm a clinician i'm looking into my patients or i'm treating but if you want to make your treatment effective if you want to make your diagnosis effective it is this kind of research orientation a research culture that we have to inculcate right from the beginning ravine what are your thoughts on this i think that the covet pandemic has shown that to us the code pandemic has shown us that we have had to think on our feet when it started we didn't know what we are dealing we had to think on our feet because we are dealing with something unknown and when we are dealing with something unknown we have to then critically look at the information we have to see what's out there we have to be able to evaluate it and with covert it helped that every every tom dick and harry journal decided that we will have a special team and covet with hundred papers and so we had paper after paper after paper coming and we don't know which of these papers are true we look at journals like the landsat we look at journals like the negm and we think they are standard generals and then we read four months down the line that papers have been retracted and this was not correct and that was not correct oh it showed us that whatever we have learned in a clinical emergency in a public health emergency unless we are able to use our critical thinking process at the moment for the patient sitting in front of us possibly looking at our phone and googling asking god or google as we call him no for some information on what is out there looking at it and then picking out what's important then trying to apply that so kovic showed us that we have to think we have to critically think and it's necessary it's essential that that thing happens at a very fast pace now the dissertation is actually meant to help the student practice that practice that with the help of the guides with the help of people in the department with the help of core guides with the help of supervisors with the help of their peers practice that whole thinking process so that they are able to make instantaneous decisions when a patient is there in front of that part of it has been lost that particular part of it has been lost because it's being now seen as a mandatory submission of under 200 pages that can fill the co-op web filled displayed and shelves of institutions in dark corners and that's the part that we have to be able that this is an integral part of your clinical training and once we build that in then the whole thing changes very true very true uh dr anju gobind is here our joint secretary of ira kerala and do you have any questions on this particular topic your comments please um so actually one thing that i want to ask is see as you as everyone was saying because i passed out just four to five years back uh that you know because we are given our topics and uh the first thing is like okay we have to make a small synopsis and everything and madam also said that okay people take a long time to actually go through it but the problem is that you know when we first enter and we are actually builder because a lot of things are getting bombarded to us from every side so basically when there is nobody to actually like a mentor like you know and a capital mission who's actually there to make sure that you know we are also giving an importance to our thesis work it it happens to basically everyone because we we also started looking at the whole topic by six or seven months as madam very rightly said and so i also personally feel that maybe you know from the beginning uh when we are entering itself there should be somebody to actually let us know the importance of faces because uh as rejoicer also rightly said right now because we did not give too much of importance to research and you know uh all these things in general because we are just focusing on our studies so to make us understand the importance of this i think somebody from the beginning itself should actually be there to guide us and let us know that this is not actually going to be a torture for you but at the same time it's going to be helpful for you in the future which is actually i personally think as somebody who just passed out within like four or five years back it's very important so that is actually what i got as an input that i want to say yeah what anju saying is correct because when the students are coming first after their long neat examination after a tough time uh trying for their best to get the radiology when they come in say that they are just blank they don't know what to do and they are afraid of their serious and they are afraid of the duties a lot of torture is coming to them so i think the teachers they should guide them and the will help them to teach also the importance of the thesis work the research which is very important because the clinical radiology is coming up so every student should be clinically oriented and it's very important that they should have some uh coacher as she said a mentor to help the students in the first year itself i think we should we should organize that because first students are really they're afraid when they come inside the department seeing so many machines so many public insight all this will give them a little bit of tension so i think it's better that we should have a guide and we should instruct all the department heads about this okay shall we wind up the session so yeah yeah so thank you once again uh dr praveen nermalin for that wonderful uh lecture the first of its uh of the 12 series of lectures that we have on the dissertation guidance today he is covered the introduction part of your thesis your dissertation which is very important you're trying to make your examiner reviewer interested in what you're going to do in your in your study in your research and how the sentences of the language and the content has to be placed uh in a in a proper manner with the key element approach that dr pravin nerman has highlighted here i think it will be useful and i feel uh in one of in the it will be very useful for you to the exercise given apply the exercise given by dr praveen narelin think about your hypothesis and think about your thesis topic and try to write an introduction and that will be a very good exercise for you to understand how we can build that sentences how we can build a language and content and make the reader interest reviewer or the examiner interested in what you have to say about the subject thank you very much uh everyone who has attended today's lecture uh dr gomez the president of ira care lord of ranjeu the joint secretary dr ms chennai the program coordinator and the netflix team which has coordinated the technical part of it thanks all thanks to all of you


IRIA, Kerala brings to you a 12 weeks 'President's Dissertation Guidance Program' to help you bring your dissertation to a successful fruition. Join us live with Dr. Praveen Nirmalam as he walks us through the first session in this series on how to write an introduction with illustrative examples.


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