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India Under British Rule and its Struggle for Independence

Feb 05 | 3:30 PM

The first instalment of this series takes you on a journey through the Indian history's dark eras. From the time the British first set foot on Indian soil as innocent spice traders to becoming the rulers of one of the world's most powerful economies in the eighteenth century, to finally uniting as a country yearning for freedom. Let us hear from Dr. Tejus Naik, an enthusiastic historian, about the British-India history in a nutshell.

[Music] i welcome you this evening uh for a slightly different experience on metallic than we are generally used to so this evening we have with us uh dr pedro smile an eminent uh pediatric and neonatal surgeon from empire like i was saying dr paige's snack is has more than four decades of experience being a pediatric surgeon uh but in the last couple of days that i have got to interact with him uh as we were planning for this session i got a glimpse into sir's interest and these are what set him apart some of his interests are like the topic suggests indian history of course and which you all will realize how passionate he is about it in this session apart from that he is an avid coin collector which again you all will see i hope we all can see a few coins in the session and he's also has an amazing collection of antiques which um maybe we can have another session on that in the coming up uh weeks um so as and so has given plenty of talks on indian history but unlike the regular history talks uh he uh sir keeps it light and crisp and he make sure to give a ton of information in a short span of time so let's begin this series with today's topic about british indian history and india's struggle for independence thank you sir for coming on to netflix and the platform is yours you very much to netflix and to you personally uh i'm i'm uh dr tejas uh this must be new to you a non-medical subject but i'm sure uh you all are uppercrust of intellectuals of the world and i have seen that we have multiple interests beyond medicine and if not in history of india then what and the part the history of india i'm going to touch upon today is actually what made us what we are our society our surroundings our clothings our our language everything has been modified by history we are going to see today and that is india under british rule and struggle for independence and i'm going to make it in a nutshell which will be about say 45-50 minutes uh this is part of my talks which i have chosen to name the list we should know so let us first start with a sort of a timeline now this is something which explains what i'm going to talk about first see the bottom the bar which is from 1700 to 2000 and the upper blue bar that you see different blue shades is the history of the british in india but this two centuries were three overlapping era because simultaneously independent kingdoms and princely states developed in india and they were later girls after aurangzeb and then after mutiny there was intensified struggle for independence which culminated in our independence now this is the zone of the history that i am going to touch upon now when did actually the perspective start when did the british come to india the story is not 200 years it goes back almost 400 years in year 1600 the british navy had captured portuguese and spanish ships and also through that trade in the west indies they had found out that the portuguese and the spanish people were bringing a lot of uh precious stuff from east from india and other places particularly spices and even wells and clothes this tempted them to start their trade with with india and when they found a log book of of a captain of a ship it explained how trade should be done with india and they they were aghast at learning that there was five thousand percent profit in this business so ultimately a group of people utter thomas smythe requested queen elizabeth and on repeated requests she granted them to form an east india company in 1600 which basically allowed them trade on the east of cape of good hope which is the southernmost point of africa to the east of it they were allowed trade and the first ship arrived in india under james lancaster which was red dragon my friends i have put years to all these developments and mostly i will not speak of ears you can read them so you will have a timeline in your mind my purpose is to view a thread of continuous occurrences over these four centuries but still being brief under the logo that i have developed and there is the least we should know they developed a flag and a logo and they directly got into conflict with portuguese and the dutch who had already arrived in india before them their first war in india the battle in india occurred in the waters near surat which was a navy battle called battle of swali which the east india company won and that raised their hope in achieving editorial footholds in india now this they could only do with blessings of the mughal and that is why at that time uh the king james fun sent sir thomas wrote his emissary to then mughal emperor jhangir thomas rowe entities was very attracted by what he learned from thomas rowe about the riches and curiosities from the europe and in return for these goodies for his palace he granted thomas rowe and the company uh the right to trade and established trade force thomas rowe went on to become a jhangi's close friend and stayed on for three years in his in his coat and even became his drinking buddy but this allowed start of the trade and later even shah allowed further trade and he even waived custom duty king charles ii then allowed the uh the company even territorial acquisitions minting their own money and make fortresses and even keep their security forces soon 23 factories were made in india and four of them were fortified in bombay madras calcutta another and here you see an old bombay castle picture they were allowed to mint coins and i hold in my hand which are not going to be able to see an actual coin of that era the picture you see is the coin i have in my hand which is more than 200 years old and the mughal even granted them to main coins of mughal pattern this is a coin of mughal pattern with uh the writings in arabic at that time there was a very infamous pilot a british pirate called henry every aurangzeb's daughter with a lot of treasure was returning on two ships from yemen to surat which henry every attacked and looted he took away five last pieces of gold and silver from those ships this infuriated aurangzeb so much that he almost decimated the trade posts of the each india company and ultimately the british emperor had to apologize and promise him that his uh losses will be returned by this time there was also the battles between the england and india in different places also started in bengal there was one battle and in bombay when they they tried to confront with aurangzeb's forces they were defeated on both accounts further next when they were trying to expand they ultimately made three presidencies one in bombay one in madras and one in bengal these three presidencies were independent of each other and they were ruled by town councils by merchants they had their own small security forces but as their their greed increased they they increased their security forces into an army and soon the army by 1770 it was almost 67 000. at that time robert clive who had arrived in madras as a clerk was rising in the position he had shown valor in two wars one was siege of pondicherry and one was karnataka and he rose to a level of lieutenant and when in bengal sirajud then nawab of bengal attacked the calcutta trading post and the fort and he imprisoned 64 british prisoners in a small room size of our bedroom out of 64 in a in a day or so 40th he died and to fight this clyde was sent to battle with syracula and he attacked and released the calcutta fort and soon as the history has repeated so many times to our misfortune siraju dhala's commander meer jafar defected to the british and he helped the british to fight a war against syracuse that is considered a turning point in history of india that was battle of blasi nawab was defeated and later he was killed by mil jafir himself this gained territory for the company who further went on towards bihar uh and now when they had already one award they what they did was shalom second was the emperor the mughal emperor at that time they gifted this area back to in return for givani rights of bengal bihar and orissa you see how crookedly this they sprayed their tentacles and they also started having legitimate foothold in india mainly uh or towards the bengal side clive ultimately uh returned to india in lot of fame and also criticism and had to he committed suicide the company by that time was growing fast and after plasie they fought a combined force of bengal avert and mughal at boxer and defeat them this was also a time when a very visible pain occurred in the background area the british mismanaged it took away resources and food from that area away and almost died directly or indirectly due to british and or inaction by this time consider british rule was getting established what this is the start of the british rule we can say india that was which giveaway rights of bengal and behavior also they established capital in calcutta and first governor general was made for all british areas that the three areas were ruled separately initially but and you can see in the map that the bengal presidency area was rapidly increasing in size one governor general warren hastings uh changed a lot of things he seemed to respect hinduism also and appointed brahmins as his advisor which made many hindus happy but it also worsened the caste system in india but he kept the mughal system of one-third taxing the population uh ultimately when he retired to england he was impeached and his impeachment was world famous his impeachment proceedings lasted for seven long years which ruined him completely that was because of his fraudulent carrier in india by this time the british officers had started living luxuriously they were the new royalty in the south one dynasty which we may call one of the shortest lasting dynasty uh in the world that was hyder ali and his son tipu sultan only actually uh had taken away the mysore a kingdom from its wader kings and his son tibu sultan also became the uh king of that area tipu used to take help of the french and he used rocketry in his uh warfare he for continued uh uh warring with marathas but ultimately he fought second third and fourth anglo-mysore wars and surprisingly in the last war deepu had to fight not only british but the british were helped by nizam and marathas also this he lost and ultimately was killed by the british in british parliament by now they had realized the company is increasing company becoming very powerful so uh the british parliament took away the rule of india but surprisingly they allowed the company to continue to function as they were now this is when the company started having a very large army by now the company had an army of two and a half lakh soldiers largely indians but this was double the size of entire british army and they kept on fighting various factions in india the major ones they had to fight were marathas and stick so after tibu they continued fighting marathas over long years and the last wars with maratha they one was in 1818 and with the sikh in 1849 by this time all major opposition was decimated and the british came out the victors in this area you can see the map and you can see how the british area was growing first the three presidencies and then they were ruled singly the white areas in the third map on the right side it basically shows the white areas where the princely states they're influenced by but not ruled by the british at that time the british were trading in indian opium indigo spices quarter etc but the opium trade was the maximum they used to it used to be almost 40 percent of total trade and the east india company's trade was almost 50 percent of total business total trade occurring in the world so this is where the british were when wellesley uh one of the uh governor generals started a very intensive uh campaign to expand the territories this again further angled the indians and so they saw the seeds for the mutiny dalhousie another governor general started in infamous doctrine of labs what law he made was that if a king or a prince dies without a biological air an adopted child would not do if biological hair is not there then that state would be taken away by the british that is what they did for 30 princely states which were taken away over by the british and these included jasi punjab assam awadh udaipur surat tanjur and many such states de rossi also instituted lots of reforms benefiting not just the british but the indian public also and it was his mind that started the elaborate railway system so he started the plans for railways and that was not for benefit of the people but that was to take the raw material very rapidly to the ports to be shipped to england and to bring the finnish products from england to india and its bustling markets this was early 19th century and india also thought this time we got the intelligent presidencies india was being ruled by three separate places and this presidency had different currencies in 1835 uniform coinage was introduced so one coin then was uh used and that was at the time of william third and then later it continued with uh victoria and other other rulers but because of the tax structures on the farms because of the seller structures and the portion structures and the supports and because of the doctrinal act there were three classes which were becoming very specific and there is particularly farmers the simples and the rulers they started conniving they they started decide that there are so few british and we can overthrow them but because communication was poor and under the watchful eye of the british it was very difficult the there was just a patchy uh arrangement for mutiny what ultimately tipped the balance was a new rifle the british had introduced which was 1853 enfield this required a cartridge which had gunpowder and a buckshot and there was a greased part which had to be turned off for so that the gunpowder could be could be filled in the rifle and this greased part had aloe made from pig and cow fat this again angered muslim as well as hindu uh boys in in the army in the british army and when it was boiling over ultimately the precipitous movement moment was in barrackpur barakapur is near calcutta there mangal pandey who was a sepoy he locked his mind in anger he called upon his friends to attack and with a sword and gun he started attacking the other british superiors he was soon caught he shot himself but did not die he was caught and later after a month he was executed but this news spread and that spread to other areas where the mutiny further started now this is the map of newtonian on the right side if you notice from barak bur the meeting spread to agra alabama and ambala and particularly merit in merit numerous british soldiers civilians including women and children were killed it spread to delhi and then further to different parts of india there were not too many punjab kanpur bihar but the shocking fact and so sorry to to know what we were at that time and what ultimately led to british victory was this very sad map in this map if you realize only the red dots the small red dots were the rebel states which who provided manpower and money the orange area where actual mutiny occurred the off-white areas or yellow light yellow areas that you see see were all under the british the blue area which sided with you see the massive number of areas states uh the blue who helped the british and the green states remained neutral you can realize this mutiny was to fail from beginning there was not much in it in this mutiny 40 000 british soldiers with three black indian soldiers nearly three and a half lakh fought against thirty thousand mutineers these mutineers were where uh uh had the leaders uh who were tatya tope was one great maratha commander but nana said peshwa or dhandupan rani lakshmi bhai of jahasi but particularly badusha safar the mughal badusha zafar was not only a very weak person but the mughal empire at that time was a small area just around delhi but baadusha uh had a very lenient view about religions and he was considered a gentleman and that is why though a poor leader he was considered the leader the supreme leader of the mutiny one by one everybody fell first nanasub was defeated in kanpur he escaped and disappeared there is no news and it's a mystery where he went one uh suspicion is that he went to nepal become ultimately helped uh rani lucky by to fight uh but the british laid siege around chassis uh tatya helped lakshmibi escape but while escaping lakshmi by was caught by british soul soldiers and killed uh went on fighting even when the mutiny was called off but see what happened tatya tope ultimately took refuge with his friend man singh of narwar but the next day man singh handed him over to the british the british caught him and ultimately they executed him here you see an actual sketch made by a british soldier of tatia tope before his execution there were at that time only one lakh british in india civilians as well as soldiers and india had a population of 25 crores but still the mutiny was lost the aftermath was severe and cruel there were lots of executions uh the the british did not leave anybody uh women children all were tortured and killed the tortures you should google and see how bad the torch i cannot even speak them that miserable torches were done the british parliament in public both favored a cruel revenge there were many hangings but one method which was now extinct for a century that was tying a person in front of a cannon and blowing the cannon was revived by the british an old mughal punishment and they killed many by the canon torture and execution were rampant and legs died during mutiny and many after it is supposed that almost 10 black people died miserably uh during the ensuing decade as they fall out was caught in the tomb of umayu and then he was sent to rangoon dale but all his sons and grandsons grandchildren were killed this is the time miss victor started paying more attention that what is happening in india next year in 1858 queen victor took away the entire charge from east india company in her own hand so the british government and the royalty took away the charge so that is the time we may consider 1858 was end of the rule of east india company and start of the british rule so actually the british raj as we call it started in 1858 at that time just before victoria came to power i have these two coins which i have shown here also i wonder you cannot see them but these two coins are one written victoria queen the second written victoria empress so victor then started being called an empress and instead of governor general of the east india company uh the british parliament appointed viceroys and the first viceroy was canning in 1858 so india was stunned initially they had this feeling of fear and then ultimately they had to find a way a different way to fight the british so slowly in india post mutiny national awareness started they realized that the nation has to unite they cannot have this separate mutinies and get killed so in the process swami vivekananda's thoughts came in handy uh in 1867 by navroji he made his east india association and suriname and another freedom fighter and nationalist made his indian national association these were the forerunners of congress and ultimately a british actually hume ao um with 70 men founded indian national congress with the first president wc banerjee so this was the origin of congress at that time roughly just before that canada was given a dominion state so some freed up but under the british so that also was an attraction to india that we also should try for a dominion status this was the time in late 19th century post mutiny that we saw many great reformers of society including ishwar chandra vidya sagar dhan and saraswati and judy bafile first paper currency was also introduced in india roughly at that time congress later much later split into two moderates and extremists in indian language called mawal and jawal and that happened later now because of the mutiny nothing big was happening and the for half a century post mutiny the british empire was revealing in luxury king george v started arranging the ali darbars every few years he would come and there was a gala affair of a major scale and indian royals indian kings and princes would come and board to him and gave him gifts the british empire as you can see in the the world map the red areas where the british empire at its peak by the end of 19th century end of 19th century was also the last days of victoria because victoria passed away in 1901 after a very long rule and in early 20th century you can see india all the pink areas where the british india which was called the british raj and the yellow area that we see where princely states now what are these princely states basically princely states were also under the british they could look after themselves all their internal affairs they had to manage but the external office and the defense were in the hands of the british and they had to pay heavy taxes but in any case because of this they were lulled into a lazy state of luxury king george v declared a capital to be shifted from calcutta to delhi and soon after that in chandni chop there was a bomb blast when the viceroy was passing on an elephant twicer was uh escaped death but uh the the culprits were rounded up there were six patriots uh who were caught four of them were hanged and there was again a start of further intensified freedom movement after that uh during that period four british rulers ruled and these are their coins you can see victoria edward seventh george was the father of the current elizabeth at the turn of the century in 1905 already the muslim factions and indian factions were separating and the british took advantage of that and partitioned bengal presidency bengal presidency was massive at that time but they saw that one part was muslim majority the other was hindu and they partitioned it this drew a lot of flack from indian population particularly the east india and aurobindo arose there as a as a great freedom fighter he was imprisoned for some time but he made a ugandar party and his uganda party was mainly to collect armaments and to fight violently against the british similar at the same time muslim league was formed uh which initially was only softly for pakistan or a separate state it was only almost 25 years later that or 20 years later that they became very strong in their demand for a separate state there was an attempted murder of a judge by kudiram bose which led to lots of arrests and again the violent movement or the militant movement that was starting was thought the world war first came and gandhiji and the other leaders actually helped the british gather the force and 10 lakh indians fought overseas in the world war one 75 000 of them died the british were impressed and they promised some form of autonomy soon after the world war one a promise they never kept the only thing they did mainly was build india gate many of you might be knowing that india gate is to uh commemorate those who died indian soldiers who died in world war one the freedom movement was gathering power in the south there was a shipping magnet chidambaram pillai in the north and east there were the triumvirate of lal bal and pal uh and they they had started the movement which was uh mainly juwal which was slightly more militant bhagat singh arrows at that time with his friends and initially they were also implicated in kakori uh railway uh attack but later when lalala was he died due to injuries because of beating by a british officer and bhagat si and his friends killed the british officer they were imprisoned and executed just before that in 1915 gokle had requested gandhiji who was already becoming a national figure in india by his activity in south africa here he requested him to come to india and join the freedom movement kandiji came to india in 1915 and the first break he got was uh during floods of kedah where he showed his uh prowess and then he rose in the independence movement and that also raised the hindu the indian anger against the british simultaneously militant movements were going on but the gandhiji is non-violent movement and lot of steam after 1920 now at this time the the princes often gathered as a chamber of princes but they hardly participated in the freedom moment the indian princes were still living in their luxury uh governments had started and there was temporary alliance with the muslim league which did not last gandhiji first made ochra bashram in ahmedabad in 1950 15 and then the sabhar matiashra but in 1930 when he went for daddy march he had promised himself and the world that he will not return to sabarmati ashram till independence is gained so he did not come back to sabarmati ashram after that world war ii came at that time indian leaders did not want to help british yet the british spent sent 25 lakh indian soldiers out of whom 80 000 died at that time gandhi is a non-cooperative and satyagraha movement and the khadi movement also gained power in between in calcutta there was a meeting of the congress where they demanded dominion status within two years at that time nehru and sardar and subhash and rabos who had already joined congress they wanted complete freedom but gandhiji at that time said let us first settle for dominion and then we will ask for freedom nothing was being done by the british and ultimately gandhiji uh and the indian leader leaders made the declaration of independence and you might be knowing this it was on 26th of january it was the year was 1930. now at that time there was a muslim fraction and a muslim conference had started which was to oppose partition so there was a group of muslims who did not want partition but the leader of that association was murdered and that was the last of a non-partitioned muslim vote here is where netaji comes netaji joined congress in 1921 constantly he was opposed to gandhiji's ideas total non-violence and dominion he wanted complete freedom and he his rule was by any means but there was animosity between gandhiji and subhash chandra is totally wrong they had lot of love and respect for each other their way of thinking was totally different but actually gandhiji started being called father of nation first by subarachandra and gandhi used to call him prince amongst patriarchs gandhiji had sent subhash chandra to bengal under the senior leadership of desh bandu chitrandan to fight the independence movement there he started making his militant moves and ultimately he was imprisoned in calcutta there is a long and a very interesting story how he escaped from calcutta there is actually route which he took in calcutta and further through the north india afghanistan and central asia right up to germany he wanted to go to germany because you realize the year this was 4142 at that time the second world war was going on and he knew that hitler was fighting british so he wanted hitler to help him fight the independence movement he stayed in germany and actually in germany uh the free india legion of germany named him netaji for the first time so that is the name given by indians in germany hitler did not show any uh uh agreement about coming and helping him so ultimately netaji had to take a very torture since a surprising route back to asia he took a submarine he came by submarine from germany the route is shown in the map on the left side and he ultimately landed in malaysia now here in malaysia in the forest with the help of the japanese he started gathering his azad in forge this was made out of the locals civilians but mainly the soldiers who had escaped from the british army the indian soldiers this army ultimately at one time became 62 000 strong netaji had a hope that it would be much bigger but it was that much again uh his respect for gandhiji and and friendship with nehru shows in the fact that he named his three brigades gandhi nehru and maulana there was also a female brigade which was headed by lakshmi sagar nithaji kept on fighting small battles but ultimately he never returned to india after he had escaped to germany he was defeated on burma india border and the british were pursuing him now there started his long journey of escape almost for two months from one to the other place he escaped in malaysia singapore and then to vietnam uh from saigon now ho chi minh city of vietnam he took a flight uh trying to go to manchuria where he wanted to meet the russians on his way to manchuria the flight had landed in then formosa today's taiwan and after taking off uh it crashed uh there are two views that he was burnt and passed away that night or there is a mysterious view that he probably survived so that is netaji now soon after nitaji on the bengal aspect with his spirit still very uh fiery uh in the people there were mutinies and one great mutiny was the navy mutiny so the the indians in the british navy mutinied in bengal and such mutants started happening at different parts of india so no indian freedom movement was not entirely non-violent and netaji's legacy not only during his lifetime but after him also lingered to help us gain the independence by this time there were three pronged pressures on the british non-violent movement of gandhiji and others the militant movements of the likes of baghdad and netaji but we should not forget the blow that world war ii had uh dealt with on the british the british the the britain british kingdom was weakened and they started giving freedom to many colonies so it was not only india which succeeded an atlantic charter was signed by churchill to grant freedom the coins here you see are the last of the british raj coins ultimately partition was also decided between gina nehru and mountbatten the king at that time was george sixth and india was granted its independence on the 15th of august 1947. a very wrong decision by mount baton mountbatten was told that the the independence should be granted by june of 1948 almost 10 months later he was in a hurry and he just wanted to do it precipitously and that is what ultimately caused lots of problems particularly that of the partition the killings during partition and the kashmir issue by this time during the british and the company rule the british had plundered from india 45 trillion dollars i have purposefully put zeros there so you realize how big figure that is and uh almost 35 million three and a half crore indians died either in wars in famines or by executions so that was the cost india paid for this independence ultimately the independence left india in great turmoil we have got independence at the initial years were of turmoil and there were four big issues in front of india these four issues can take four days to discuss i am going to finish it in four minutes one was partition the kashmir issue the princely states and creating a republic itself a partition the map for partition surprisingly was already drawn six years before in 1941 at that time even it was not final that partition would occur but this was uh drawn by the british and they did not make much changes which were required and the india was partitioned as the indian hindu majority and the muslim majority areas now some of you may be asking that what happened to nepal burma and ceylon which were also part of the british raj these three countries were were smart enough to sign declarations with the british long time before independence that they wanted to remain separate nations so that is what allowed them to remain separate from india nepal burma and ceylon became separate nations when india was granted independence and was partitioned so that was the time that the movement of the people occurred the the partition was declared in june just two months before independence look at this even the boundaries were not finalized when the partition was declared there was a great chaos this was one of this was the biggest movement of of people in the world totally one and a half crore people moved half of them from and half of them to india which left india with a population of 35 crores but in the process and let were not killed they were massacred most of them tortured and killed the journalists who had attended death camps in the second world war had also witnessed partition and they almost grabbed seeing the misery and they declared that this was more cruel than the death camps of the of the germans at that time gandhi spent time in calcutta thawing the situation calming the people and it is recorded that his effort did pay uh and uh there was less massacre on that side as compared to the punjab side the second issue was kashmir i will deal with it only in a minute maharaja hari singh was the king of kashmir hindu king of muslim majority he was given the choice whom to join he had a prime minister called always wanted kashmir to be an independent nation was fired by maharaja saying please understand this situation because was fired pakistan thought that harissing is leaning towards india and that is why they start their congress into kashmir pakistani militia and also arming the the local tribals they attacked the kashmir area and within days they progressed to the green area that you see and that you we know today as we start occupied kashmir at that time there was no army in there almost no army worth calling in that yeah army took almost a month to reach by that time this is what had happened i'm sure all of you know about this map the greenish upper area we know uh was taken away by the pakistani forces and the tribals and uh that is what formed the pok what happened to oxygen that is a very very curious issue you see the black line which i have i have arrowed and said much before independence china believed that this was its border now i wonder why the british made a new line called johnson line as you see the red line which we uh consider uh as in india so india believed that we it is up to the red line the china believed it is up to black line from 1950 to 1957 china built roads and and uh settlements in exciting area and india did not even know about them because this was such difficult terrain and going from kashmir to exciting was very difficult coming to exciting from china was very easy and that is why it was only in 1957 that it was realized that china had already taken away this part and that is where almost it is today when we say that the china does something or the other it is at the black line not in aksai chain but like the line of control as we might say so that is the issue of exciting the princely states now see the upper two maps the left map is what in british left us with there were multiple princely states and it was all patchy it was not smooth like we believe that that was indian there was pakistan and we had to get the priestly states under our fold the british gave them four choices join india join pakistan become an independent nation or join britain mountbatten very insistently had told the princely states and so did india that they had only two choices join india or pakistan in india only three there were many difficulties but three states created more problem congress was of the opinion of more violent solution sardar had a more diplomatic solution he and vip manon the duo made it possible to gather all the states in india three states created problem kashmir junagadh and hyderabad state baniszam kashmir we still know is a problem junagad what happened was the because there was a majority uh public where hindu they revolted and the nawab ran away uh to karachi so that issue was settled uh hyderabad was not agreeing sardar almost got the army to the bar and ultimately he agreed so that is how the issue of the princely states was settled and ultimately after the independence it took two and a half years to then finalize the flag the constitution and lots of issues were settled and till then constituent assembly and you see the logo continued ruling india under nehru and the india was declared uh a democratic republic on 26th of january 1950 and there is the day when the constitution was adopted the first coin of india was made and here is uh that coin i'm sure you can't see it but this is 1951 rupee coin which was the first coin of the free india the first election was held in 1951 52 and now we were on our independent democratic faith so that is our story and i'm leave you with the 1951 map and how the states looked like in at that time thank you very much thank you so that was an amazing amazing session um refreshed all of history and there were a lot of points that i'm sure uh nobody must have heard of because in the busy schedule that physicians have uh i don't think anyone really opens up a book or actually looks into these things but it was very well uh summarized and put into a short 50 minute uh lecture uh so we uh can take a few questions but before we get to the questions let's uh look at a few uh quiz questions that sir has arranged for so i'll just uh run through the slide and you can put in the answer in the comment section and we will uh then have a look at the right answers afterwards so this is the first question uh bharapur where mangal pandey started the mutiny is in which present state of india um so unlike cutting edge this has one two three four so you can either put one two three four or we'll go as a b c d that's okay um a lot of correct answers is what i see um okay moving on to the second question uh i think so just covered this right now our national flag was adopted in which year uh 1946 1947 1948 or 1950 okay uh go to the sector question uh identify uh the freedom fighter the pictures on the right hand side is he okay going to the next question uh who propounded the doctrine of labs was it hastings mountbatten dalhousie or robert clyde uh most of these questions i think all of these questions so has covered in his uh lecture so they shouldn't be uh that difficult uh going to the last question uh gandhiji returned from south africa at the request of uh lajpatrai gokule tilak or jyotiba of we wait for a couple of seconds and then we can have the right answers uh oh there's one more sorry uh what is the final destination of netaji's plane which crashed was in japan vietnam mongolia or manchuria uh and now coming to the right answers so the first uh question the right answer was this bengal i think a lot of the users did get this right um the second question uh the national flag was adopted in 1947 um the freedom fighter in this picture is surim uh sure banerjee uh the doctrine of labs was given by dalhousie uh gandhiji uh returned from south africa uh at the request of cochlea and finally netaji is plain cash crashed in manchuria so these were the quiz uh questions that we uh lined up yeah it was destined the destination was manchuria sorry uh the destination of the plane but um so can you elaborate on what ultimately was the reality about that like if there's something else or is it still like a mystery or nobody i'm i'm no judge i'm yeah i'm no judge or jury for that but those who uh uh support that he actually passed on that day uh have i i would just uh suggest to you go through google there is a vast vast amount of literature just on the last flight of netaji just google last flight of netaji and read there is immense amount of literature available in public domain and most of them believe that there were people how he actually came out of the plane he was trapped behind the luggage i could not exit from the uh back door and then he had to go through the fire with the plane had already caught and come out from the front end and he was aflame like a human torch the world of a supposed witness and he had more than 70 burns what appointments were applied to him also have been mentioned and how he passed away he was cremated and his she were to be brought to india if you ask me whether i believe it or not who am i to believe you know this is something which is there and that is why i cannot tell you what actually happened but uh there have been enough reports for this and there are also uh there are lots of people who believe he did not pass away there are no actual uh witnesses some people say there where but if you say that he appeared as a sage in uttar pradesh or he was an army officer in in russia and he lived for so many years or he was in calcutta that is something i don't believe why would nidalee hide from an independent india he was a hero from the beginning and that is why those aspects i don't believe but whether he survived or not remains a bit of a mystery okay i think uh dr rajasthan is saying something uh on the same lines that according to cia there was no such event that took place in taiwan so i think it is the uh i'm i'm telling you that this is the written matter it's not my opinion if the whole world is if the whole world is keeping it open who am i to put a full stop to the matter no i don't know what happened i just told you both the sides that uh people don't believe those witnesses because they have written at length but uh mr rajendra i would advise you to go through the available literature in the public domain google it wikipedia i don't know how much you trust it i trust it 80 percent 90 uh wikipedia might tell you a few things so uh yeah i [Music] uh there are a lot of comments that said that it was a very well presented topic and uh very well presented uh detailed presentation i mean uh yeah if we all go back to our school days and the history lessons that we learned uh i don't think they were ever so interesting with so many pictures and so many small anecdotes very well uh put like the whole um the whole indian british indian history uh very well put the whole sequence of it reason but question two that he's posed is are we still intellectually slave of western world um that's i think the whole world has moved i mean you go to you go to you go to japan you go anywhere even even very locally conscious people also have western uh views so there is nothing wrong in western view if we take only the good side of it but we are losing our original selves our orthodox ways our orthodox honesty and our family values those should not go i mean if we want to be indian only we should be wearing kurta and dhoti you are not going to do it i'm not going to do it these are these are western stuff and we don't mind doing it so we must separate what is western and accepted uh why are we using uh something which is invented in the west then but that is something good and we are doing it but we should not be losing uh our orthodox values uh our uh thought thoughts that our scriptures have taught us uh but the most important thing is that what history has taught us and the most i mean whatever we say we always lost to the foreigners because of our own conflicts and because of our own people who who met with them and fought with us that is why we should realize that that we should learn from history but i have a wonderful quote i don't remember who said that that one thing we have learned from history is that we have learned nothing from history so that's very well said um i think uh dr bissai's question was uh what is your opinion on the reason that india suffered being a slave for so long um i think you just covered that in your uh i already told you i told you when when the british when the british left there were three lakh total britishers and only 30 000 were the soldiers 30 000 soldiers british soldiers and at that time the indian population was close to 40 crores before independence 40 crore people ruled by 30 000 soldiers whose foolishness is that yes sir that's true and it's also i think 200 years of being oppressed that everybody started looking up to the british though they didn't know why why call it operation oh we we brought it up on no no operation why call it operation operation operating people were so few why did you get oppressed because we were not united why did we get independence why did we fail in the mutiny and why did we gain our or got independence because we were united and we should all remember that this independence was not got by non-violence means it shared so much blood that i mean many many uh deaths occurring and many genocides in the world uh are similar i mean we also suffered so many crores of people dying and now we are saying that we got it dizzy and we are no we did not get it easy and we should remember that this situation should not occur again we should remain united so and it may not be an outside force this time it could be like within the country itself but i think like you said like learn whoever yeah mistakes that india did before because outside forces are waiting outside forces are waiting for us to divide ourselves and split ourselves they are waiting yes yes sir um it's it was a very enlightening talk and uh i think we've gone through most of the questions uh i don't see any day's hands um i must say tell them give them my mobile number give them my mobile number and tell them to be in touch with me about this sure we will uh and this is just the first session that we had today in uh this uh series that we are planning with sir uh so uh stay tuned for more such topics um a for the future uh we set these sessions up and there's a request from one of our users if they can have a copy of the presentation is that possible or no no okay uh so i'm sorry doctor but you will have to come back controversies worried about controversies worried about controversies yes that's that's that's true uh so thank you so much sir uh for coming in on a saturday night thank you thanks a lot uh to the audience thank you thank you for coming in

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dr. Tejus Naik

Dr. Tejus Naik

Pediatric Surgeon with over 40 years of teaching experience | Holds 11 gold medals for his clinical achievements.

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dr. Tejus Naik

Dr. Tejus Naik

Pediatric Surgeon with over 40 years of teach...

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